Biology Test 1
Terms in this set (79)
a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
Each step in a food chain or food web
shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
the total amount of mass of living tissue within a given trophic level
explain how energy flows through your food chain
Energy flows from trophic level to trophic level, starting with the producers.
What would happen to this food chain if a disturbance caused a serious decline in the population of the top consumer?
The Lion population will decrease, the gazelle population will increase, which will cause plants to die out because the gazelles are are eating it all.
Primary consumers always make up the first trophic level in a food web.
Ecological pyramids show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food web.
On average, about 50 percent of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to the next level.
The more levels that exist between a producer and a given consumer, the largest the percentage of original energy from producers is available to that consumer.
What is a pyramid that best illustrates the relative amount of living organic matter available at each trophic level
What is a pyramid that best shows the relative number of individual organisms at the trophic levels in an ecosystem
Pyramid of numbers
What is a pyramid that shows the relative amount of energy available at the trophic levels of a food chain or food
the part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction
how nature moves energy at an extremely rapid rate
An organism that can make its own food.
first level consumer
can make its own food or produces it form the sun energy
second level consumer
something that eats first level consumers (carnivores)
third level consumer
can be carnivores or omnivores, obtain energy by eating the second level consumers
first level energy amount
second level energy amount
third level energy amount
primary producers energy amount
is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through both biotic and abiotic compartments of Earth.
a substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.
the process in which certain bacteria convert nitrogen gas into ammonia
The conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas which is then released into the atmosphere.
A factor present in an environment that controls a process, particularly the growth, abundance or distribution of a population of organisms in an ecosystem.
Explain why Earth is considered a closed system
because the same cycles happen over and over again
How might building a new highway affect the cycles of matter?
Building a highway means clearing out trees, plants, and habitats of organisms, which limits nutrient availability. This prevents the nutrients from being recycled
What role do plants play in the water cycle?
they help remove the carbon dioxide from the air through the form of photosynthesis
The carbon in coal, oil and natural gas came from
The remains of dead organisms
How does most of the carbon in an organism's body return to the environment after the organism dies?
Decomposers break the body down into simpler compounds
Human processes mainly contribute to the
Release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
List and describe the biological steps in the nitrogen cycle:
Step 1. Nitrogen fixation - bacteria take nitrogen gas from atmosphere and fix (make it stick) it into soil
Step 2. Once in soil, plants absorb it into their roots
Step 3. Consumers eat producers and reuse the nitrogen to make compounds
Step 4. Decomposers release nitrogen from dead organisms into soil
Step 5. denitrification Bacteria convert it back to a gas
What is atmospheric nitrogen fixation and how does it affect organisms?
When lightning strikes, some atmospheric nitrogen is converted to usable compounds in soil to be used by organisms
How do humans add nitrogen to the biosphere?
by adding fertilizers
Which part of the phosphorus cycle are geological processes?
marine sediment turned into rock and washes phosphates from rock to ocean
If nutrients were in short supply in an ecosystem, how might it affect an organism?
It would limit the organism's growth, or even survival
When is a substance a limiting nutrient?
When it is scarce or cycles very slowly and limits an ecosystem's growth
(The Nitrogen Cycle) Processes that cause carbon to move into the atmosphere
Respiration- Organisms eat and break down food, releasing CO2 through cellular respiration
Volcanic Activity- The release of CO2 and other gases into the atmosphere through vents in Earth's crust.
Processes that cause carbon to move out of the atmosphere
Photosynthesis- Plants use of sunlight, water and CO2 to produce carbohydrates
Ex: Dissolving, fossil fuels, others- CO2 dissolves in rainwater; animals are decomposed, pressurized and converted to fossil fuels over time
What is the greenhouse effect?
Holds the heat of the sun
What is the difference between weather and climate?
Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere acts over long periods of time.
What is an organism's niche?
A niche is an organism's role in a community. What it eats, Where it eats, When it eats, and its job in that environment.
What is symbiosis?
Symbiosis is the interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.
What are the three different types of symbiosis?
commensalism, mutualism, parasitism
When is primary succession likely to occur?
primary succession will likely occur after when there are no remnants of an older community
What is the difference between primary succession and secondary succession?
primary succession will likely occur after when there are no remnants of an older community, second succession is more likely to occur when the area is not completely destroyed
What is a climax community?
when an area reached its amount to survive
What is an estuary?
An estuary is the tidal mouth of a large river, where the tide meets the stream.
What landforms are not classified into a major biome?
mountain ranges, and polar caps
What is the difference between the photic and aphotic zone?
200 meters photic is higher up in the ocean and has photosynthesis, while aphotic zone is dark and has no photosynthesis
What does water circulation do for a lake or pond?
it gives heat, oxygen and other nutrients to the lake or pond
Other than photic and aphotic zones, what are three divisions (or zones) of marine ecosystems?
interidal zone,coastal zone, and oceanic zone
How do ocean currents originate?
it changes in the temperature of the water
How do winds originate?
changes in wind temperature
What is the competitive exclusion principle?
the competitive exclusion principle states that no two species can coexist if they occupy the same niche at the same time, in the same place, and compete for the same resources. If two species complete one will die, or migrate, or change its niche
What are the major biomes from our book?
Tropical Rain Forest, Tropical Dry Forest, Tropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland, Desert, Temperate Grassland, Temperate Woodland and Shrubland, Temperate Forest, Northwestern Coniferous Forest, Boreal Forest, Tundra
What abiotic factors are most common in differentiating between the biomes?
biomes are on land not on the ocean, the soil, the climate
What is Ecology?
how all life lives
What does the biosphere contain?
How are human economics and ecology linked?
working with money and ecology is the study of organisms
Make a diagram that shows the levels of organization in ecology
Organism→ Population→ community→ ecosystem→ biome→ biosphere
Explain the relationship between ecosystems and biomes.
an ecosystem describes all the organisms that live in one place, together with their physical environment, and a biome is a group of ecosystems that share similar climates
Why might an ecologist set up an artificial environment in a laboratory?
it is easier to experiment with
Why are many ecological phenomena difficult to study?
they may be affected by the climate or by the environment which might be hard to reach or get to or It may take a very long time to study
Why do ecologists make models?
so they can study and observe the environment, and plan out ways to improve that environment
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
Any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact, including animals, plants, mushrooms, and bacteria
are the non-living parts of an organism's habitat, such as sunlight, heat, precipitation, humidity, wind, water currents, soil types, and so on
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