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2 or more people who work INTERDEPENDENTLY over a time period to accomplish COMMON GOALS related to some TASK-ORIENTED PURPOSE

5 Types of work teams

•Work team
•Management team
•Parallel team
•Project team
•Action team

Work team

•Produces goods/services
•Long term
•High member involvement
•Production, maintenance, sales team

Management team

•Integrates activities across biz functions
•Long term
•Moderate member involvement
•Top management team

Parallel team

•Provides recommendations/resolves issues
•Duration varies
•Low member involvement
•Advisory council, committee

Project team

•Produces a 1-time output
•Duration varies
•Member involvement varies
•Product design, research group

Action team

•Performs complex tasks in highly challenging circumstances
•Duration varies
•Member involvement varies
•Surgical team, music group, sports

2 Ways teams develop

•Predictable sequence
•Punctuated equilibrium

5 Steps of the predictable sequence of team development

1. Forming
2. Storming
3. Norming
4. Performing
5. Adjorning

Punctuated equilibrium

A sequence where not much gets done in the team until halfway thru the project, after which the team makes necessary changes to get done on time

3 Types of Team Interdependence

•Task interdependence
•Goal interdependence
•Outcome interdependence

Task interdependence

Team member interact and rely on each other to accomplish work

4 types of task interdependence


Pooled task interdependence

Assignments are done independently and then put together

Sequential task interdependence

work is specialized and done in certain order

Reciprocal task interdependence

Back and forth communication/input necessary to do each step of work


Needs highest level of interaction, complex knowledge and problem solving

Goal interdependence

Team has a shared vision of their goal and align their individual goals to it

Outcome interdependence

How members are linked to the outcome of the project; share the rewards

Important characteristics of a team

•Member roles
•Member ability
•Member personality
•Team size


A pattern of behavior a person is expected to display in a given context

Leader-staff team

Leader makes decisions, the rest follow

3 Categories of Member roles

•Team task roles (energizer, orienter)
•Team building roles (encourager, compromiser)
•Individual roles (aggressor, slacker)

Disjunctive tasks

Tasks where only one member needs to have the mental or physical ability for the team to succeed (trivia tournament)

Conjunctive tasks

Teams performance depends on on the performance of the weakest member (pit stop crew)

Additive tasks

Every member's efforts add up (girl scout cookies)

Value in Diversity Problem- Solving Approach

Perspective that diversity in teams is beneficial becuz it makes a larger pool of knowledge

What types of teams benefit most from diversity

Teams that do creative and complex work

Similarity-Attraction Approach

Belief that people group together with people like themselves and avoid to dissimilar people, leading to poor performance

Surface-level diversity

Observable diversity, race, sex, age

Deep-level diversity

Differences that are observable after more direct experience; attitudes, values

For what types of teams is having a big team beneficial? For which team is it not beneficial?

Having a big team is good for management and project teams, not good for teams with productions tasks becuz extra people is unnecessary

Team viability

The likelihood that the team can work together in the future

Hybrid outcome interdependence

Members receive rewards that are dependent on both group and individual performance

What effect does task interdependence have on team performance? On team commitment?

Moderately positive effect on team performance, weak relationship on team commitment

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