After Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, it
quickly opened its northern territories to trade with the United States.
In Cohens v. Virginia (1821), Chief Justice John Marshall affirmed the constitutionality of
Supreme Court review of state court decisions.
On his last day in office, President James Madison influenced "internal improvements" by
both supporting the idea of using federal funds to finance transportation construction, and vetoing a bill that would have used federal funds to construct roads and canals.
The Supreme Court ruled in Johnson v. McIntosh (1823) that
Indians had a basic right to their tribal lands
The Supreme Court ruling of Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
strengthened the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce
As a result of the United States government's Indian policy in the 1830s and 1840s,
nearly all American Indian societies were removed to west of the Mississippi.
As president, Andrew Jackson believed the power of the federal government
should be reduced and yet was supreme over individual states.
In 1833, the nullification crisis came to an end after President Andrew Jackson
authorized the use of military force to see the acts of Congress were obeyed.
In the 1830 Daniel Webster-Robert Hayne debate, Webster considered Hayne's arguments to be an attack on
In the 1820s, Whig support for the Anti-Mason Party demonstrated
the desire of the party to attract the largest possible number of voters.
John C. Calhoun drew his doctrine of nullification ideas from the
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions and the United States Constitution
President Andrew Jackson's success in abolishing the Bank of the United States
left the nation with an unstable banking system for many years
The Supreme Court ruled in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
that Georgia had no authority to remove the Cherokee tribes
The primary goal of the United States' policy toward Indians in the early 1800s was to
acquire the land occupied by Indian tribes
The Supreme Court ruling in Charles River Bridge Company v. Warren Bridge Company (1837)
reflected Jacksonian ideas of democracy and economic opportunity
American factory workers in early nineteenth-century textile mills largely consisted of
families and rural, single women
Before 1860, American middle-class families
became the most influential cultural form of urban America
Between 1800 and 1830, immigration to the United States
was not a significant contributor to the national population.
Between 1820 and 1840, the population of the United States
rapidly grew, in part, due to improved public health
By the middle of the nineteenth century, merchant capitalists in the United States
were shifting from trade to manufacturing.
For most American farmers, the 1840s and 1850s was a period of
rising prosperity due to increased world demand for farm products
Prior to 1860, class conflict in the United States
was limited by a high degree of mobility within the working class.
The growth of commerce and industry allowed more Americans the chance to become prosperous without
Between 1840 and 1860, the American Southern slave population
dramatically shifted into the Southwest
By 1860, the textile manufacturing sector of the American South
had increased threefold in value over the previous twenty years
During the first half of the nineteenth century, the "Cotton Kingdom"
was the dominant source of income of the lower South
In the 1850s, the Southern social theorist George Fitzhugh wrote that women
All these answers are correct.
Rice and sugar production in the antebellum South
were concentrated in a relatively small geographic area.
Prior to 1860, the center of economic power in the South
shifted from the upper South to the lower South.
The chance of a runaway slave making a successful escape from the American South was
Prior to 1860, Southern women differed from Northern women in that they
were expected to be more subordinate to men.
Prior to 1860, how did the role and status of Southern women compare to that of Northern women?
According to the nineteenth-century "science" of phrenology, what could be discerned from the shape of an individual's skull?
her character and intelligence
During the nineteenth century, the largest obstacle to improved medical care in America was
the absence of basic knowledge about disease.
In the 1840s in the United States, an initial understanding of germ theory was made by
Oliver Wendell Holmes.
In the 1840s, abolitionists in the United States constituted
a small percentage of the national population.
Prior to 1860, public education in the United States
gave the nation one of the highest literacy rates in the world.
The Massachusetts reformer who built a national movement for new methods of treating the criminally ill was
The primary goal of the 1840s community experiment known as Brook Farm was
to permit all members to realize their full potential as individual beings.
As a result of his 1858 debates with Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln
gained many new supporters outside of Illinois
Before the early 1850s, Americans who traveled west on the overland trails were generally
relatively young people who traveled in family groups
During the 1840s, the United States added more than one ___________ square miles of new territory under its control.
In the 1850s, the "Young America" movement
supported the expansion of American democracy throughout the world.
In the 1858 Abraham Lincoln-Stephen Douglas debates,
Lincoln argued slavery was a threat to the growth of white free labor.
Southern defenders of slavery made all of the following arguments EXCEPT
black codes protected slaves from abuse
The Chinese who came to California during the gold rush
had similar aspirations as the American participants.
At the start of the Civil War, the armed forces of the United States
saw many of its soldiers stationed in the West.
During the Civil War, "greenbacks" issued by the federal government
fluctuated in value depending on the fortunes of the Northern armies.
During the Civil War, as a result of new technology in weapons
attention to defensive fortifications increased.
In the Civil War, at lower levels of military command
amateur officers played important roles in both the Union and Confederate armies.
Politically, the Confederate constitution
was almost identical in many respects to the Constitution of the United States.
President Abraham Lincoln believed the main objective of the Union armies was to
destroy Confederate armies.
Taxes enacted by the United States Congress to help finance the Civil War
included a new income tax.
The U.S. Military Telegraph Corps was headed by Thomas Scott and what future Gilded Age tycoon?