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MA - ch.41 - Assisting in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Terms in this set (46)
protrusion of the rectum into the posterior wall of the vagina
2. uterine prolapse
uterus losing supportive structure and drops into the vagina
protrusion of the bladder into the anterior wall of the vagina
4. PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)
acute or chronic infection of the reproductive system that ascends from the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
endometrial tissue outside the uterus
6. dilation and curettage (DNC or D&C)
opening of the cervix and scraping of the endometrial wall
7. abruptio placentae
occurs when the placenta implants in the lower uterine wall
8. placenta previa
placenta implants in lower uterine segment
surgery to remove a women's uterus or womb
high-frequency sound waves from transducer to penetrate an organ and bounce back to transducer that produces an image
11. chorionic villus sampling
test performed during early pregnancy that can find problems with fetus
amniotic fluid test to diagnose chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infection or inherited metabolic disorders
13. alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
maternal blood sample is analyzed between 16 - 18 weeks; elevated levels indicates a neural tube defect such as a myelomenigocele, spina bifida, anencephaly, chromosomal problems
a process using low-energy x-rays to examine the breast
done to visually examine the vagina and cervix
application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal cells
17. Bartholin's cyst
a fluid filled cyst in one of the vestibular glands that are located on either side of the vaginal orifice
18. Neural tube defects
congenital malformations of the skull and spinal column caused by failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development; the neural tube is the origin of the brain, spinal cord, and other central nervous system tissue
19. Kegel exercises
help strengthen the pelvic floor muscles and are done to prevent or treat pelvic prolapse and incontinence
20. Term pertaining to women who have had two or more pregnancies
21. Thin, yellow, milky fluid secreted by the mammary glands a few days before and after delivery
22. An x-ray procedure to guide the insertion of a needle into a specific area of the breast
23. Spotting or bleeding between menstrual cycles
abnormal uterine bleeding in middle of menstrual cycle (intermenstrual bleeding)
24. Excessive menstrual blood loss, such as a menses lasting longer than 7 days
25. Absence of menstruation for a minimum of 6 months
26. Absence of menstruation for 35 days to 6 months
27. A hormone secreted by the placenta that is found in the urine of pregnant females
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
28. Thinning of the cervix during during labor, measured in percentages from 0% to 100%
29. Abnormal cellular development that is diagnosed from a Pap smear
30. Congenital anomalies of the brain and spinal column that occur during embryonic development
neural tube defects
31. A disease or condition that has no known cause
32. Toxic substances that cause severe fetal deformities or death
33. A test that uses a combination of fetal monitoring, maternal reports of fetal movement, and the fetal heart rate to determine the health of the baby in utero
nonstress tests (NST)
Skills and Concepts
1. label the structures in the following figures
A. labia majora
B. mons pubis
D. urethral orifice/meatus
E. labia minora
List the organs from the top of the anatomical right to the top of anatomical left
a. fallopian tube
c. urinary bladder
e. labia minora
f. labia minora
l. ovarian fimbriae
2. List and describe the 3 phases of menstruation
- egg follicle on ovary gets ready to release egg, uterus starts growing, new endometrium to prepare for pregnancy, last 5 days plus ovulation are fertile window
- starts on day of ovulation, some women spot bleed and have lower pelvic pain. If egg is fertilized it will implant, if not the edometrium breaks down
- day 1 of cycle, the endometrium of uterus begins to shed; menstrual bleeding from vagina for normally 4 - 6 days
3. Medical assistants should have a basic understanding of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), their typical signs and symptoms, and their treatment. Provide the missing information about STIs in the following table.
see table 41-2
4. Describe 3 benign gynecologic tumors
a. fibroid tumors - smooth muscle and some fibrous connective tissue (idiopathic)
b. ovarian cysts - sac of fluid or semi solid material that form on or near the ovaries
c. fibrocystic breast disease - characterized by the presence of multiple palpable nodules in the breasts
5. List and describe 4 gynecologic cancers
- caused by HPV,
- vaginal bleeding, persistent vaginal discharge
- develops when the endometrial cells become abnormal & grow uncontrollably, most common in women 50 - 70 after menopause
- begins with ovaries, often goes undetected until it has spread with in the pelvis and abdomen. Most fatal of all gynecological cancers, CA125 blood test for early detection
- 2nd leading cause of cancer deaths in women; American Cancer Society - 1 in every 8 women at risk for breast cancer. 1 of 28 risk of dying
6. List and define 5 types of naturally occurring abortions
- loss of pregnancy before 12 weeks
- complete expulsion of placenta & fetus without intervention
- partial expulsion, D&C required to stop bleeding
- fetus dies in utero, surgically removed
- cervical bleeding, but dilation is not, pregnancy goes on uninterrupted
7. List and describe two different types of placental abnormalities
- implantation of the placenta over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterus
- separation of the placenta from the uterine wall before delivery of the fetus
8. Labor is the physiologic process by which the uterus expels the fetus and the placenta. It is divided into 3 stages. Define each stage of labor
- (9 -11 hours) onset of labor through complete dilation & effacement of cervix uterine contractions - longer, stronger, closer together
- (1 hour) complete dilation & effacement of cervix
- from birth of fetus through expulsion of the placenta about 20 minutes after birth of baby.
9. Explain the difference between perimenopause and menopause. What are the typical discomforts reported by women at this time? How are they treated?
- Begins when hormone changes appear, can last 10 years before menopause. Women still ovulate, uneven rise and fall of hormones cause symptoms: hot flashes, concentration problems, irritability.
- Permanent ending of menstruation. Result in cessation of ovarian function, usually occurs between 45 & 55 years, diagnosed after 1 year without menstruation.
10. Your patient is trying to decide whether to breast-feed or bottle-feed. What are some benefits of breast-feeding you could explain through patient education?
a. complete digestible nutrician source
b. protects against gastrointestinal infection
c. protects against food allergies
d. mothers antibodies to infection & disease
e. associated with higher IQ
f. promotes muscular eye & facial development
g. promotes maternal - infant bonding
d. promotes uterine involution, which reduces postpartum bleeding
e. promotes maternal - infant bonding
11. Explain the new Pap smear guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)
1. First screening Pap smear at 21 unless there is a history of abnormal Pap smear.
2. Should be performed every 2 years for women in 20's if prior Pap smears are normal.
3. Women 30 and older (with 3 consecutive Pap smears) every 3 years.
4. Women who have had hysterectomy for noncancerous reasons don't need Pap smear unless there is a cervix.
5. Follow guidelines whether or not the patient has received HPV vaccine or not.
6. Women should have yearly physical examination, including breast, pelvic, and STD screening if indicated.
7. Patients must have an annual exam to receive birth control
8. Patients with a history of an abnormal Pap smear should consult with physician regarding how often to schedule Pap smears.
12. Describe the AMA's guidelines for recognizing women who are victims of abuse.
Know what to look for
: multiple injuries at different sites (areas covered by clothing), patient may be frightened, anxious, passive, history of "accidents"
Know what to ask when performing patient history
: Even if no signs of abuse should be asked if ever been in abusive relationships; if verbal arguments ever become physical; if partner is over protective & jealous.
Know what to say & do
: A battered woman suffers physical and emotional abuse. She may believe she deserves to be mistreated, and she need unconditional and nonjudgmental emotional support from healthcare worker. Needs to be treated with warmth, respect, encouragement to develop a plan of action before next violent episode.
Suggestions: immediate access to important documents, keys, money, transportation, address of safe house, phone numbers of police and local domestic violence hotline if available. National Domestic violence hotline: 1-100-799-SAFE (7233) 24 hour help for victims seeking shelter.
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