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APUSH Period 2 Vocab
Terms in this set (96)
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
King Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England, he split with the Catholic Church and declared himself head of the Church of England, or Anglican Church.
Sir Walter Raleigh's failed colonial settlement off the coast of North Carolina
Sir Walter Raleigh
founder of England's first American colony
The great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588; defeated by the terrible winds and fire ships; signals power shift from Spain to England
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
A document that gives the holder the right to organize settlements in an area
First permanent English settlement in North America
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia
colonists at Jamestown were blocked in their settlement by Natives and couldn't get food
First Anglo-Powhatan War
Series of clashes between the Powhatan Confederacy and English settlers in Virginia. English colonists torched and pillaged Indian villages, applying tactics used in England's campaigns against the Irish.
Jamestown colony leader who showed that tobacco could be grown successfully in Virginia; marries Pocahontas
daughter of Powhatan chief whose marriage to colonist John Rolfe eased tensions between the Powhatan and the colonists
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
Last-ditch effort by the Indians to dislodge Virginia settlements. The resulting peace treaty formally separated white and Indian areas of settlement.
Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland
Maryland and Virginia
Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania
New England Colonies
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire
House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.
Act of Toleration
a 1649 Maryland law that provided religious freedom for all Christians
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Barbados Slave Code
First formal statute governing the treatment of slaves, which provided for harsh punishments against offending slaves but lacked penalties for the mistreatment of slaves by masters. Similar statutes were adopted by Southern plantation societies on the North American mainland in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Poor farmers in North Carolina and elsewhere who occupied land and raised crops without gaining legal title to the soil
Defeated by the South Carolinians in the war of 1715-1716. The Yamasee defeat devastated the last of the coastal Indian tribes in the southern colonies.
what Georgia was to protect the colonies from Spanish Florida and French Louisiana
a group of Native American nations in eastern North America joined together under one general government
A body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin.
Calvinist belief that God long ago determined who would gain salvation
A change of heart, turning away from sin and toward God
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
One of a group of 16th and 17th century English Protestants preferring to separate from rather than to reform the Church of England; pilgrims
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
English settlers migrate to Americas (mainly West Indies)
Puritan leader who became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
A Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island. She displayed the importance of questioning authority.
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south
The constitution of the Connecticut River colony drawn up in 1639, it established a government-controlled in democratic style by the "substantial" citizens; first constitution style doc
Chief of the Wampanoag Indians who helped the Pilgrims survive. They had peace for 40 years until his death.
Native American chief who fought against English colonists in the King Philip's War; Massasoit's son
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wampanoags, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Glorious (or Bloodless) Revolution
Relatively peaceful overthrow of the unpopular Catholic monarch, James II, replacing him with Dutch-born William III and Mary, daughter of James II. William and Mary accepted increased Parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchical authority.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
an English policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations in its colonies in return for the colonies' continued economic loyalty
Vast tracts of land along the Hudson River in New Netherlands granted to wealthy promoters in exchange for bringing fifty settlers to the property.
leader of the Dutch colony New Netherland
Duke of York
brother to King Charles II and founder of New York
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacifism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
Regulation that prohibited certain private activities people considered immoral, such as drinking alcohol on Sundays
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
A Governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favorite. He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. Berkeley enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
Royal African Company
English joint-stock company that enjoyed a state-granted monopoly on the colonial slave trade from 1672 until 1698. The supply of slaves to the North American colonies rose sharply once the company lost its monopoly privileges.
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights.
New York Slave Revolt
Uprising of approximately two dozen slaves that resulted in the deaths of nine whites and the brutal execution of twenty-one participating blacks
Stono Slave Revolt
A slave revolt in South Carolina in 1739 when fifty black slaves tried to march to Spanish River along the Stono River. They were stopped by local militia. Black slaves were more tightly controlled than indentures, so less large-scale uprisings.
A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
Jacob Leisler seized control of lower New York from 1689 to 1691. The uprising, which occurred in the midst of Britain's "Glorious Revolution," reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority was restored in 1691 by British troop
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crèvecoeur
French settler who thought and wrote about the new American identity; he described the population as diverse, with many cultures and ethnicities intertwined, asked "What then is the American, this new man?"
A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
Belief that salvation is offered to all humans but is conditional on acceptance of God's grace. Different from Calvinism, which emphasizes predestination and unconditional election.
believed in free will and that you can lose your salvation
First Great Awakening
Religious revival in the colonies in 1730s and 1740s; George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards preached a message of atonement for sins by admitting them to God. The movement attempted to combat the growing secularism and rationalism of mid-eighteenth century America. Religious splits in the colonies became deeper.
Preacher during the First Great Awakening; "Sinners in the hands of angry god"
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
Conservative clergymen who were against the emotional approach of the Great Awakening
Ministers who took part in the revivalist, emotive religious tradition pioneered by George Whitefield during the Great Awakening.
a Revolutionary War veteran who painted the scenes and spirits of the war
American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America (1753-1784)
Poor Richard's Almanack
Widely read annual pamphlet edited by Benjamin Franklin. Best known for its proverbs and aphorisms emphasizing thrift, industry, morality, and common sense.
Zenger Trial (John Peter Zenger)
New York libel case against John Peter Zenger. Established the principle that truthful statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel; freedom of press
Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.
Colonies in which the proprietors (who had obtained their patents from the king) named the governors, subject to the king's approval.
an English sea captain that stole goods off of Spanish ships and gave them to Queen Elizabeth - He later led the English into battle against the Spanish Armada
Indian chief and founder of the Powhatan confederacy of tribes in eastern Virginia
Lord De La Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Founder of the Georgia Colony
A Mohawk leader who called members of five groups together forming the Iroquis Confederacy around 1570.
John Singleton Copley
Colonial painter who studied and worked in Britain
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