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A hormone that works antagonistically with insulin and is released when blood glucose levels fall below normal.
Activates, controls, and integrates the peripheral autonomic nervous system, endocrine processes and many somatic functions, such as body temperature, sleep, and appetite.
anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin) and oxytocin
Neural stimulation of the posterior pituitary causes the secretion of two effector hormones.
Natural chemical substances secreted into the bloodstream from the endocrine glands that regulate and control the activity of an organ or tissues in another part of the body.
A small gland situated at the base of the brain that secretes hormones directly into the blood stream to control and regulate the other endocrine glands.
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
This hormone is used generally for diagnostic testing and not for therapeutic purposes.
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
Stimulates the thyroid gland to increase the uptake of iodine and increase the syntheses and release of thyroid hormones. This is prescribed for hypothyroidism and diagnostic tests.
ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
This hormone acts on the distal and collecting tubules of the kidneys, making them more permeable to water and reduce the volume of the urine.
This hormone produces powerful contractions of the pregnant uterus and causes milk to flow from lactating breasts.
A disease that results from a deficiency of ADH -- water is not reabsorbed by the kidney and is excreted in the urine.
This gland synthesizes, stores, and secretes hormones (T₃, T₄ and calcitonin) that are important to growth, development, and metabolic rate. It is located in the anterior neck and is the largest of the endocrine glands.
This hormone has a very important role in calcium metabolism. It is used to treat hypercalcemia, osteoporosis, and Paget's disease.
A deficiency disease that causes cretinism (mental and physical retardation) in children. In adults, it is from hypothalamic pituitary or thyroid insufficiency or resistance to thyroid hormone (myxedema).
A condition of excessive amounts of thyroxine. This condition stimulates cellular metabolism and increases respiration and body temperature. It causes nervousness and tremors.
Four tiny glands that lie along the posterior surface of the thyroid gland which release PTH when there is a low plasma level of calcium.
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
This hormone targets bones, the digestive tract (intestines), and the kidneys. The overall effect is to increase plasma calcium levels.
These glands are located at the top of each kidney and consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla.
Synthesizes three important classes of hormones: glucocorticoids (cortisol), mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone), and androgens.
The most common use of these agents is treatment of arthritic and rheumatic disorders.
The primary mineralocorticoid used to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. It promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys to preserve extracellular fluid volume (blood).
This produces digestive enzymes that are deposited in the small intestine. α cells produce glucagons to raise blood glucose levels and β cells release insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels.
A complex disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism is caused by lack of or inefficient use of insulin in the body.
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