64 terms

BSCS Molecular Biology Chapter 2

BSCS Biology: A Molecular Approach Chapter 2 Vocabulary
refers to a physical or nonliving component of an ecosystem
active site
the portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate through weak chemical bonds
adenosine diphosphate
adenosine triphosphate; a nucleotide a nucleotide of adenine & ribose joined to a chain of 3 phosphate groups
organisms that obtain energy and nutrients from nonliving sources such as the Sun, minerals, and the air (e.g. plants, certain bacteria, organisms that capture energy from hyrodgen sulfide)
a secretion of the liver stored in the gallbladder and released through a duct in the small intestine; breaks large fat droplets into smaller ones that enzymes can act on more efficiently
the study of the energy flow and energy transformations among living systems
the outer portion of Earth - air, water, soil - where life is found
biosynthesis reactions
reactions that build proteins from amino acids and build tissues from the proteins (consume free energy)
relating to a living component of an ecosystem
a microscopic blood vessel penetrating the tissue and consisting of a single layer of cells that allows exchange between blood and tissue fluids
carbohydrate digestion
completed in the small intestine
chemicals that lower activation energies
cell respiration
the series of chemical reactions by which a living cell breaks down carbohydrates and obtains energy from them
chemical digestion
the breaking down of complex food molecules into simpler ones
chemical energy
energy stored in the structure of organic molecules from which the organisms who store them are made
chemical work
include constructing and breaking down large complex molecules and organizing them into larger structural components of cells
autotrophs that perform chemosynthesis
a biochemical pathway that uses energy from the oxidation of inorganic substances to drive the formation of organic molecules
a heterotroph; an organism that feeds on other organisms or on their organic wastes
Bacteria, fungi, and other heterotrophs break down and that lives on decaying organic material (dead plants, animals), from which it obtains energy and nutrients
degradative reactions
"breaking-down" reactions; type of metabolism
the intermingling of substances by the natural movement of their particles
the processes that break down food
a biological community and its abiotic environment
an organism in its earliest stages of development
the capacity to do work or to cause change
energy conversion in a living thing
living systems can conserve and use some of the energy released in chemical reactions
a measure of the degree of disorganization of a system OR how much energy in a system has become so dispersed that it is no longer available to do work
catalysts; specialized proteins that lower the activation energy required to make a reaction proceed
a trapdoor-like tissue that normally prevents food and liquids from entering the trachea (airway)
a muscular tube connecting the oral cavity to the stomach
extracellular digestion
digestion that takes place outside the cells
the waste material expelled from the digestive tract and eliminated through the anus
1st law of thermodynamics
(derived from the principle of the conservation of energy): energy can be neither created no detroyed, but it can be transferred or transformed
food web
the overlapping food chains of an ecosystem formed by producers, consumers, decomposers
free energy
the portion of chemical energy that is available to do work
a digestive hormone secreted by the stomach lining; stimulates the secretion of fluid by gastric glands in the stomach
type of place where an organism lives
heat energy
a form of energy that is unusable for organisms and increases the entropy of the universe
organisms that obtain energy and nutrients from other organisms, living or dead (e.g. animals, fungi, most bacteria)
the process of taking food into the digestive tract
intracellular digestion
digestion that takes place in the cells (happens w/ plant digestion in cells with the foods the plant has made itself)
a fat-digesting enzyme
mechanical work
include movement
the chemical activities and changes that take place in a cell or organism
a substance that supports the growth and maintenance of an organism (raw material)
the removal of electrons from a molecule
a single-celled organism
a protein-digesting enzyme secreted by stomach gland cells in an inactive form called pepsinogen
the inactive form of pepsin
a process by which wavelike contractions of the muscles of the asophagus move food to the stomach
autotrophs that perform photosynthesis OR organisms that derive energy from light and form their own organic compounds from abiotic carbon sources
the process by which cells use light energy to make organic compounds from inorganic materials
physical digestion
the breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller ones; increases surface area of food making chemical digestion easier
an autotroph; any organism that produces its own food
a watery secretion containing digestive enzymes that begin chemical digestion; ph 6.0-7.4
salivary amylase
an enyzme in saliva that begins digestion of starch; converts starch to dissarcharides
2nd law of thermodynamics
energy transfers and transformations increase the entropy of the universe
a molecule on which enzymes act
biosynthetic reactions
"building-up" reactions; type of metabolism
transport work
involves the movement and concentration of the raw materials (nutrients)
an intestinal enzyme that breaks peptide bonds. producing amino acids from polypeptides
fingerlike projections of the small intestine that increase surface area for absoption of digested food