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AP Psychology Practice Test I (with explanations)

Terms in this set (100)

C - Jack had a bunch of interesting history professors, so he got the idea that they were all fun and entertaining (until Professor Smith bored him to tears and he changed this perception). You should be looking for the term that involves changing your mind to fit new experiences: that would be accommodation, (C)! Every time Jack perceived a history teacher to be a total blast, this idea was assimilated into his general conceptual framework (or "schema") about history teachers. So a schema in which history teachers are entertaining was the product of assimilation ((D) and (B) are wrong). In contrast, accommodation is the process whereby our existing ideas about the world are changed in order to incorporate new information. Jack's conclusion that not all history teachers are in fact entertaining, based on his experience with Professor Smith, was the result of accommodation ((C) is correct). If you didn't recall these psychological terms, simply remembering that "assimilate" means "to absorb" and "accommodate" means "to adapt" would help you here. Cognitive dissonance refers to when the mental tension or discomfort that we experience when we hold inconsistent beliefs or our beliefs are inconsistent with our behavior. Jack would have experienced dissonance when his ideas about how boring Professor Smith was conflicted with his established schema about history teachers ((A) is wrong). An archetype, (E), is an image or idea that all human beings have in common, so this term doesn't apply here.
Which of the following survey findings are most likely to accurately reflect what they purport to measure?
(A) Jeffrey stands outside an upscale grocery store and asks the first 100 people who walk by whom they intend to vote for in the upcoming senatorial election (they all answer his question). Based on the results, he concludes that candidate X will win.
(B) On orientation day at Jeffrey's college he passes out a survey about attitudes towards capital punishment. Based on the 100 responses he collects (everyone present responded), he concludes that young people in America disapprove of capital punishment.
(C) Jeffrey mails a survey about environmental issues to 500 people randomly selected from the local phone book. Based on the 100 responses he receives, he concludes that most people in his county of residence believe that more money should be spent on conservation efforts.
(D) At an elementary school Jeffrey chooses three of the four sixth-grade classes at random and distributes a survey about which field trips the children desire. All 100 children completed the survey and, based on the results, he concluded that the overwhelming majority of sixth-graders at that school want to visit a science museum.
(E) Jeffrey visits a community meeting at the Town Hall, shows a film about the plight of the poor, and passes out a political survey (all 100 people present complete it). Based on the results he concludes that ost local citizens believe that the government should be doing more to eliminate poverty in their area.