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universalizing religion

attempts to be global, to appeal to all people wherever they may live in the world, and actively seeks conversion; 58% of the world; 3 main are christianity, islam, and buddhism

ethnic religion

appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place; 26% of the world


a large and fundamental division within a religion


a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body


a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination


belief in a single god; 3 great monotheistic faiths: judaism, christrianity, islam


belief in many gods ex.Hinduism


belief that inanimate objects (natural features, plants, animals) have spirits ex. sun god, rain god


2 billion adherents, largest world religion, most widespread; 3 major branches: Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox; founded upon the teachings of Jesus

roman catholic

dominant christian branch in the southwestern and eastern parts of europe; 51% of christians; Vatican city in Rome is the center of catholic religion


dominant in the eastern and southeastern parts of europe; 11% of christians; Constantinople of Byzantine Empire is the center of Eastern Orthodox; a collection of 14 self-governing churches in Europe


dominant in northwestern europe; 24% of christians; 1517 protestant reformation led by martin luther (Henry 8th wanted to get divorced but couldn't so created protestantism)


1.3 billion adherents predominantly in the middle east (indonesia, pakistan, bangladesh, and india), fastest growing religion, Muhammad is the prophet born in mecca in 570AD, holy book is the Quran

5 pillars of islam

1. there is no god but allah, muhammad is his prophet
2. give prayer 5x daily
3. give aid to the less fortunate through charity
4. fast during the month of ramadan
5. at least one pilgrimage to mecca

branches of islam

Sunni-83% of muslims
Shiites-16% of muslims mainly in iran, pakistan, and iraq


400 million adherents mainly in china and southeast asia, originated in Nepal, founded by siddhartha gautama; 3 main branches

4 noble truths

1. life is full of suffering
2. desire is the cause of suffering
3. cessation of suffering is achieved by quelling of desire
4. overcome desire by proper conduct and meditation


largest ethnic religion with 900 million adherents 97% of which are in India; believe it is up to the individual to decide the best way to worship God; polytheism, the caste system, reincarnation; the Ganges River is seen as a sacred place


14 million adherents, 1/3 in the US 1/3 in Israel; first recorded religion to espouse monotheism

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