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Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology
Terms in this set (45)
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Goals in uncovering mysteries of human and animal behavior: description, explanation, prediction, and control.
the process of examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities. Belief developed by Wilhelm Wundt in the late 1800s. First attempt to bring objectivity and measurement into the concept of psychology; therefore Wundt is the father of psychology.
Titchener's expansion on Wundt's views. Every experience could be broken down into its basic elements: its individual emotions and sensations. Titchener believed that introspection could be applied not only to physical sensations, but thoughts as well. This viewpoint died out in the early 1900s.
early perspective in psychology associated with William James (Harvard professor), in which the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play. Influence of Darwin's ideas led James to believe that behavioral traits could aid in survival, the same way physical traits do.
early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures. Gestalt psychologists believed the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and people naturally seek out patterns ("wholes") in the sensory information available to them.
the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that we push threatening urges and desires into our unconscious mind, and nervous disorders result from these repressed things trying to surface. He believed personality formed in the first six years of life; thus childhood was a critical time. His work is the basis for psychotherapy and some of his ideas are still influential, in a modified form.
the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only. Pavlov's dogs-conditioning. Watson's belief that all behavior is learned, rather than motivated by unconscious desires (Freud). Experiment with "little Albert" and conditioning to fear furry things. Mary Cover Jones and counterconditioning.
modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of motivations behind a person's behavior other than sexual motivations. Still uses unconscious mind, like Freud, and its influences on conscious behavior.
modern perspective led first by Watson and then by Skinner. Operant conditioning: behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are reinforce, and vice versa
often called the "third force" in psychology, this was a reaction to both psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism. This is the view that people have free will and strive for self-actualization, the fulfilling of one's potential. Today, it exists as a form of psychotherapy aimed at self-understanding and self-improvement.
modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking
modern perspective that focusses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
modern perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system
modern perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share. Ex: common dislike of certain tastes because it's evolutionary beneficial
a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology. No medical training.
a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
psychiatric social worker
a social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse
system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced. Used by psychologists.
tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations
in research, repeating a study or experiment to see if the same results will be obtained in an effort to demonstrate reliability of results
watching people or animals behave in their normal environment
tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
form of naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed
tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
used when it is impractical to use a natural setting. Disadvantage: artificial situation could result in artificial behavior
study of one individual in great detail. Freud's theory of psychoanalysis was based on case studies of his patients. Advantage: tremendous detail and sometimes the only way to get certain information (ex: Phineas Gage with the metal rod in his brain). Disadvantage: can't apply results to other similar people; vulnerable to researcher's bias
researchers ask a large number of people questions about the topic they are studying
randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects
the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested
a measure of the relationship between two variables. Does not prove causation.
a number derived from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and direction of a correlation. Number between -1 and 1.
a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of a cause-and-effect relationships
definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured and limits the confusing effects of different interpretations. Ex: aggressive behavior could be defined as specific actions including hitting, pushing, etc.
variable in a an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter
variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment
subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable
subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive placebo treatment
process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group
the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in the study can influence their behavior, resulting in measurable changes in the dependent variable
tendency of the experimenter's expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or control group
study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group
guidelines for doing research with people
1) rights and well-being of participants must be weighed against the study's value to science
2) participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation
3) deception must be justified
4) participants may withdraw at any time
5) participants must be protected from or informed of risks
6) investigators must debrief participants, telling the true nature of the study and expectations of results
7) data must remain confidential
8)researcher is responsible for any undesirable consequences to participant
making reasoned judgments about claims. Four basic criteria:
1) there are very few "truths" that do not need to tested
2) all evidence is not equal in quality
3) experts or people with authority aren't necessarily right
4) critical thinking requires an open mind
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 12: Social Psychology
Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders
Chapter 15: Psychological Therapies
Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception
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