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Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 1
Terms in this set (66)
The field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur through throughout the entire lifespan
True or False?
Developmentalists view development as a lifelong, continuous process
What are the four topical areas in lifespan development?
1. Physical development
2. Cognitive Development
3. Personality Development
4. Social Development
What is physical development?
Involves the body's physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep (body/structural)
Involves the ways that growth and change in learning, memory, problem solving, and intelligence influence
Involves the ways that the enduring characteristics differentiate one person from another change over the lifespan
The way in which individuals' with other and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable
Conception to birth
Infancy and Toddlerhood
Birth to age 3
What are four influences on development?
1. History-graded Influences
2. Age-graded influences
3. Sociocultural-graded influences
4. Non-normative life events
biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical moment (9/11, JFK)
events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last (biological/environment)
the social and cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual, depending on such variables as ethnicity, social class, and subcultural membership (cultural, religious)
non-normative life events
unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life (atypical for most people)
A shared notion of reality is widely accepted (ex. masculine vs. feminine)
-change is gradual
-achievements at one level build on previous level
-underlying developmental processes remain the same over the life span
change occurs in distinct steps or stages, behavior and processes are qualitatively different at different stages
certain environmental stimuli are necessary for normal development
people are susceptible to certain environmental stimuli, but consequences of absent stimuli are reversible
current theories emphasize growth and change throughout life, relatedness of different periods
infancy and adolescence emphasized by early developmentalists as most important periods
emphasis is on discovering inherited genetic traits and abilities
emphasis is on environmental influences that affect a person's development
What are six theoretical perspectives of lifespan development?
focusing on the inner person (the approach stating that behavior is motivated by inner forces
focusing on observable behavior
examining the roots of understanding
concentrating on the unique qualities of human beings
taking a broad approach to development
our ancestors contribute to behavior
people you grew up with, people in the same environment/conditions as you
genetic makeup (99.9% the same genetics)
cultural background, nationality, religion
unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior
the approach that encompasses changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another, as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society
What are the three aspects of personality according to Sigmund Freud?
What is the Id?
raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality-primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational (your needs)
What is the Ego?
The part of the personality that is rational and reasonable (buffer)
What is the superego?
The aspect of personality that represents a person's conscience, incorporating distinctions between right and wrong
What is psychosexual development?
a series of stages that children pass through in which pleasure is focused on a particular biological function and body part
What are the five stages of psychosexual development and the corresponding ages?
1. Oral (birth- 12/18 months)
2. Anal (12-18m-3yr)
3. Phallic (3-5/6yr)
4. Latency (5/6yr-adolescence)
5. Genital (adolescence-adulthood)
a type of learning where an organism responds in a particular way to a neural stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response (ex. Pavlov's dog)
a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its association with positive or negative consequences
social-cognitive learning theory
learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model
the process by which a stimulus is provided that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated
The introduction of an unpleasant or painful stimulus or the removal of a desirable stimulus that decreases the probability that a behavior will continue in the future
What are the four steps of social-cognitive learning theory?
1. Observer must pay attention to the model's behavior
2. Behavior must be reproduced accurately
3. Observer must successfully recall behavior
4. Observer must be motivated to learn and carry out behavior
The Cognitive perspective
Focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world
What is Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
people pass in a fixed sequence through a series of universal stages of cognitive development
the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking
the process that changes existing ways of thinking
What is the humanistic perspective?
people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior
What is the biological approach?
the perspective suggesting that different levels of environment simultaneously influence individuals
an approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture
the everyday, immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives
connects various aspects of the microsystem, linking children to parents, students to teachers, employees to bosses, and friends to friends
represents such broad influences as local government, the community, schools, places of worship, and the local media
represents larger cultural influences such as society in general, types of government, religious systems, and political thought
The way passage of time affects children's development
What is the evolutionary perspective?
To seek to identify behavior in today's
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 18
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 19
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 2
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 3
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