360 terms

US History STAAR EOC 11th Grade Complete Set

STUDY
PLAY
1898
Year of Spanish American War
1914-1918
Years of World War I
1929
Year of Stock Market Crash and the beginning of the Great Depression
1939-1945
Years of World War II
1957
Year when Soviet Union launched Sputnik, space race begins
1968-1969
Years when Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated and the United States landed on the moon
1991
Year when the collapse of the Soviet Union ended the Cold War
2001
Year of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon
2008
Year when Barack Obama was elected as the first black president of the United States
William McKinley (1897-1901)
a. Spanish-American War (1898)
b. Hawaii is annexed (1898)
c. American Open Door Note (1899)
d. Boxer Rebellion (1900)
Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
a. Insular Cases (1901)
b. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903)
c. Roosevelt Corollary (1904)
d. Muller v Oregon (1908)
e. Roosevelt Panic of 1907
f. Progressive Era (1910-1920)
Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
a. Federal Reserve Act (1913)
b. Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
c. World War I (1914-1918)
d. Zimmerman Note (19117)
e. Wilson's Fourteen Points (1918)
f. Schenk v. U. S. (1919)
g. Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Warren G. Harding (1921-1923)
a. Nine-Power Treaty (1922)
b. Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)
c. Teapot Dome Scandal (1923)
Calvin Collidge (1923-1929)
a. Immigration Act of 1924
b. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
c. American Indian Citizenship Act (1924)
Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)
a. Black Tuesday/ Great Depression Began (1929)
b. Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)
c. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932)
d. "Bonus Army" in DC (1932)
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)
a. Emergency Banking Relief Act (1933)
b. TVA (1933)
c. Glass-Steagall Banking REform (1933)
d. Federal Securities Act (1934)
e. Social Security Act (1935)
f. Schechter Poultry Corp v. US (1935)
g. US Neutrality Acts (1935, 1936, 1937, 1939)
h. Lend -Lease Act (1941)
i. Attack on Pearl Harbor (1941)
j. America in WWII (1941-1945)
k. Great Depression (1929-1941)
Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)
a. Atomic bombs dropped (1945)
b. Yalta Conference (1945)
c. The beginning of the Baby Boom (1945)
d. Truman Doctrine (1947)
e. Marshall Plan (1947)
f. NATO formed (1949)
g. Cold War (1946-1991)
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)
a. Brown v. Board (1954)
b. Warsaw Pact (1955)
c. Suez Crisis (1956)
d. Sputnik (1957)
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)
a. Berlin Wall (1961)
b. The Bay of Pigs (1961)
c. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)
a. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964)
b. Civil Rights Act (1964)
c. Tet Offensive (1968)
d. Great Society
Richard Nixon (1969-1974)
a. Invasion of Cambodia (1970)
b. Treaty of Paris (1973)
c. Yom Kippur War (1973)
d. OPEC Embargo (1973)
e. Roe v. Wade (1973)
f. Watergate (1973-1974)
Gerald R. Ford (1974-1977)
a. End of OPEC embargo (1974)
b. Helsinki accords (1975)
Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)
a. Camp David Accords (1978)
b. Iranian Revolution/Oil Crisis (1979)
c. SALT II (1979)
d. Iranian hostage crisis (1979-1981)
Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)
a. Star Wars (1982)
b. Glasnost and perestroika (1985)
c. Iran Contra Affair (1986)
d. The fall of the Berlin Wall (1989)
George Bush (1989-1993)
a. Iran invades Kuwait (1990)
b. Persian Gulf War (1991)
c. Soviet Union dissolves (1991)
Bill Clinton (1993-2001)
a. NAFTA (1993)
b. US and UK launch military strikes against Iraq (1998)
c. Kosovo Crisis (1999)
d. US normalizes trade relations with China (2000)
George W. Bush (2001-2009)
a. 9/11 (2001)
b. US invades Afghanistan (2001)
c. USA Patriot Act (2001)
d. NCLB (2002)
e. US invades Iraq (2003)
Barack Obama (2009-2017)
a. Passed American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
b. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obama Care)
c. Osama Bin Laden killed
American Recovery & Reinvestment Act
This 2009 Act increased the role of the federal government by increasing government spending to jump start the economy.
Al Gore
He was Vice President for Clinton and lost the 2000 presidential election to George w. Bush in one of the closest elections in history.
Balkans Crisis
After the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991 wars between former Soviet nations led to this humanitarian crisis and charges of ethnic cleansing.
Reagonomics
Reagan's supply-side economic program using tax cuts, reducing the government size and spending, and decreasing inflation.
Billy Graham
An Evangelist fundamentalism preacher, he has been a spiritual and moral adviser to many U.S. Presidents. As a prominent Christian leader, he spoke out against communism during the Cold War era. Most Presidents since Dwight Eisenhower have called upon Mr. Graham during times of crisis. A vocal supporter of the civil rights movement; he refused to join the Moral Majority.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In 1979, militants held the US Embassy hostage for 444 days. Carter's greatest challenge and led to his defeat in 1980.
Iran Contra Affair
Arms sales to Iran in exchange for the release of U.S. hostages. Arms were later sold to Nicaraguan Contras.
Moral Majority
This was a highly influential conservative group of evangelical Christians successful in pushing social issues into presidential politics. Founded by Jerry Falwell.
Marines
Reagan sent these to oversee the evacuation of the PLO forces in Lebanon. During the mission their barracks were bombed.
Bill Gates
He was a very successful entrepreneur in the Silicon Valley computer industry and founded Microsoft in the 80s.
Estee Lauder
She created the multi-million dollar cosmetic company with advertising campaigns using celebrities & free-gifts.
OPEC
(Acronym) This is the organization formed by oil-producing countires to control the supply and set prices. It was used as a political weapon when they imposed an oil embargo on the U.S. for siding with Israel in the 1973 war.
Sandra Day O'Connor
Arizona state senator from 1969 to 1974, appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals in 1979. In 1981 Reagan nominated her as the first woman Supreme Court Justice by Ronald Reagan.(1980s)
Strategic Defense Initiative
This research program nicknamed Star Wars under Reagan that was designed to protect American from nuclear attacks from the Soviet Union.
Ronald Reagan
He ran on a campaign based on the common man and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reaganomics, the "trickle down" economics or supply side economics. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns. He sought to return more control to the states and decrease the size of the federal government.
(1980s)
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Egypt and Israel (helped by Pres. Carter) to resolve long-term disputes.
National Rifle Association
This group was the largest political lobbying organization that sought to secure 2nd amendment rights.
Heritage Foundation
This was a political think tank during Reagan's presidency that sought to promote conservative policies.
Détente
Nixon's foreign policy meaning a relaxation of tensions and peaceful competition with the Soviet Union.
Watergate
This political crisis during Nixon's term involved a failed break-in of the Democratic headquarters and ended with Nixon's resignation.
Environmental Protection Agency
Nixon created this federal agency to protect human health and the environment through rules and regulations.
War on Drugs
In the late 70s and 80s, this campaign fought the new levels of poverty, crime, & drug addiction in the inner cities.
Endangered Species
This act passed in 1973, Nixon designed this law to protect species nearing extinction due to human interaction.
Office of War Information
This organization was created to encourage Americans to work for the war effort, photograph the war to use as propaganda to promote patriotism.
Benito Mussolini
He became the dictator of Italy, formed the Fascist Party and invaded Albania and Ethiopia.
Rationing
This policy regulated the amount of goods that a consumer could obtain during the war. Exercising this policy was to work against anger over shortages.
Adolf Hitler
He became the leader of Nazi Germany and led an attempted genocide known as the "Final Solution."
Rock and Roll
This was a new type of music that blended traditional blues and electronic instruments to become "American music." (Included Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry)
WAAC (Women's Army Auxiliary Corps)
The acronym for the women's organization that volunteered during the war. Many of them served as nurses, Radio operators, drivers, etc.
Japan
The military faction in this country invaded Manchuria, allied with Germany and Italy and led the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Internment
This is the term for detaining Germans, Italians and Japanese during WW2.
Bataan Death March
This was the 60 mile march of U.S. and Filipino POWs by the Japanese. They suffered starvation, disease, physical abuse and murder.
War Bonds
Americans were encouraged to buy these to help finance the war effort. They reduced the currency in circulation and curbed inflation.
Holocaust
This was the name for Hitler's mass extermination of people during WW2, totaling over 11 million. Many were kept in concentration camps.
Victory Gardens
These were also call "War Gardens," grown by Americans to help with the food supply during a period of rations.
Enlistment
The military saw an increase of this in the aftermath of Pearl Harbor. Over 5 million Americans volunteered for military service.
Normandy (D-Day Invasion)
The invasion at this location is also referred to as "D Day," June 6, 1944. This began the effort to liberate western Europe.
Pearl Harbor
Japanese forces attacked this military base on December 7, 1941. As a result of this attack, the U.S. officially entered the war.
Baby Boom (1946-1964)
During this time over 30 million babies were born in the United States during the postwar era of prosperity.
Tuskegee Airmen
This was a group of African American fighter pilots who trained at the Tuskegee flying school in the US Army Air Corps. They escorted pilots on bombing missions and was famous for shooting down over 200 enemy planes.
Harry Truman
He was the President after Franklin D. Roosevelt at the end of WW2. He approved the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end WWII.
Midway
This battle is considered the turning point for the Pacific Theater. Americans broke the Japanese code and resulted in destroying 4 Japanese aircraft carriers.
Manhattan Project
This was the name for the development of the atomic bomb. The first successful test took place in New Mexico, 1945.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
This General commanded the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe. He is known for success during Operation Torch and D-Day. Supreme Allied Commander of the forces in Europe (became president after the war)
Vernon Baker
This First Lieutenant was awarded the Medal of Honor by Bill Clinton for his efforts in WW2. He was in the all black 92nd Infantry.
Douglas Macarthur
Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the Pacific theater during World War II, he accepted Japanese surrender in 1945. Would serve as General for UN forces in the Korean War and would be fired by President Truman.
Nisei
Executive Order 9066 permitted the military to require Japanese Americans or Nisei to relocate to internment camps in the U.S.
Flying Tigers
The 1st volunteer American Group of the Chinese Air Force. They trained in Burma before the American entry into World War II with the intention of defending China against Japanese forces. They destroyed over 300 enemy planes and raised morale.
GI Bill
This law passed in 1944 to provide returning servicemen educational opportunities, low interest loans and unemployment insurance.
Navajo Code Talkers
Members of the Navajo who served in the military by transmitting radio messages in their native language, which was undecipherable by German and Japanese spies in frontlines of the Pacific Theater.
Island Hopping
This was the term for the military strategy for U.S. military advancement through the Pacific Islands through Japanese territory to the mainland.
Atomic weapons
These were developed during World War II as a result of the Manhattan Project. Two of these would be used on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Concentration Camps
During World War II, Adolf Hitler ordered the Jews to be contained in these. Many were killed in these camps.
Conventional weapons
These would include the weapons of war such as machine guns, tanks, and airplanes. It would not include atomic weapons.
European Theatre
The fighting in World War II that occurred in Europe. This consisted of the Allied forces of Great Britain, United States, Russia and France against primarily Germany.
Executive Order 9066
This was the order given by President Franklin D. Roosevelt that called for the internment of all Americans of Japanese ancestry.
Homefront
The efforts by many that were home in the U.S. to support the war effort. The home-front was called to support the war effort by supporting rationing, buying war bonds, and planting Victory gardens.
Korematsu v US
Fred Korematsu filed this case claiming that his rights as a U.S. citizen were denied by the internment of Japanese Americans. The court ruled that the relocation of these citizens was constitutional.
George Marshall
He served as FDR's chief consultant during World War II and would go on to become Secretary of State under President Truman. It was during this time that he proposed the Marshall Plan which was an economic plan to rebuild post war Europe and insure that the speed of communism was contained. Army chief of staff, pushed for the formation of a women's auxiliary army corps (WAAC).
Chester A Nimitz
U.S. Admiral and commander of the Pacific Fleet during World War II. His actions during the Battle of Midway proved a turning point in the war for America as it island hopped across the Pacific on its way to Japan.
Omar Bradley
He commanded the 1st US Army during the D-day invasion. It was under his command that Paris was liberated and the Germans were turned back at the Battle of the Bulge.
Pacific Theatre
The fighting in World War II in the Pacific. This consisted of island hopping as the United States fought against Japan.
Patriotism
Pride in one's country. During WWII many Americans showed this pride by displaying
George Patton
A commander in World War II, where he led the Third Army into battle following D-Day at the Battle of the Bulge. He ordered a 90 degree turnaround of forces to relieve American troops that were surrounded. US General who lead tank battalions in North Africa and Western Europe during WWII.
Volunteerism
During World War II, many on the home front were called upon to volunteer and assist the war effort. This included buying of war bonds, conserving raw materials, and planting Victory gardens.
Hooverville
This is the term used to describe the make shift shanty-towns where many of the unemployed live. A nickname given to shantytowns in the United States during the Depression
Federal Reserve System
This system controlled the banks and their ability to loan money and reduced the supply of money. The central banking authority of the United States, which manages the nation's money supply and the availability of credit in the country. Established in 1913 by Woodrow Wilson.
Woody Guthrie
He was a country music artist during the 1930s that sang about the hardships of farmers.
Court Packing Plan
FDR's proposal to allow the president to appoint an additional Justice for every member of the Supreme Court over 70.
Stock Market Crash and Black Tuesday
Speculation and Buying on Margin caused this to crash on Black Tuesday in 1929 causing a chain reaction in the economy.

Black Tuesday--October 29th when stock market prices took the steepest dive-stocks lost $10-$15 billion in value.
Bank Failures
By 1933 many of these closed due to the increase of people withdrawing their money. This crisis was one of the first to be addressed by FDR. This occurs when a bank is unable to meet its obligations due to lack of money to refund deposits; After the stock market crashed, defaulted bank loans meant the banks did not get back the borrowed money, which had come from savings accounts; depositors later demanded their savings, so the banks went bankrupt and closed.
Dust Bowl
This was the result of severe drought conditions and led to a mass exodus of farmers from the Great Plains. The name given to the area of the southern Great Plains severely damaged by droughts and dust storms during the 1930s.
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt's domestic program from 1933 to 1939, which aimed to bring about immediate economic relief from the Great Depression and consisted of Relief, Recovery and Reform. It focused on the Banking Crisis, unemployment and restoring the economy.
Hundred Days
This the term referring to the initial part of FDR's presidency when he pushed through many of his programs including the Bank Holiday. During the first three months of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency, Congress passed a record number of bills in order to implement the New Deal and provide relief, recover, and reform from the Great Depression.
Great Plains
This region was affected by the Dust Bowl. Many left and headed to California in search of employment.
Social Security Act
This program was part of the New Deal creating a pension for the retired, disabled and unemployed. 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health.
Okies
An unflattering name given to Oklahomans and others from the rural Midwest, especially those who left the Dust Bowl looking for better lives during the 1930s in places like California.
Hawley Smoot Tariff
This tariff passed in 1930 was created to protect American business from foreign competition by raising the average tariff rate to the highest level in American history.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
This Corporation was created by FDR to oversee and protect bank deposits. FDIC - A United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, currently up to $250,000 per depositor per bank.
Securities and Exchange Commission
This Commission oversees the day to day operations in the stock market and prevent fraud. SEC- monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bonds.
Eleanor Roosevelt
She was a First Lady and worked for social reform, supported youth employment, helped the poor and addressed the needs of women in her book Its Up to Women.
John Steinbeck
He was the author of the Grapes of Wrath, a story of the migration during the Great Depression.
Dorthea Lange
She took photographs of migrant workers and displayed the living conditions during the Great Depression.
Tariffs
A tax on imported goods to protect American businesses. This protects the American businesses because the seller will pass the tax on to consumers which results in higher prices on imported goods.
Monetary Policy
The government uses this policy to protect the purchasing power of the dollar.
Tin Pan Alley
This section of New York city where musicians and song-writers formed the beginnings of American music including blues, jazz and ragtime.
Prohibition
This movement against the sale of alcohol resulted in a disrespect for the law and a rise in organized crime.
Red Scare
The term for the fear of Communists, anarchists and immigrants after the end of WWI. Led to Palmer Raids.
American Indian Act
This group gained citizenship with an act in 1924 in large part from their contributions during WWI.
Charles Lindberg
Aviator who in 1927 made the first transatlantic solo flight from New York to Paris in thirty-three hours and thirty minutes, a significant triumph for the young aviation industry. (1920s)
Flappers
This term was used to describe women who rejected traditional female clothing and behaviors exercising their independence, smoking in public and wearing shorter dresses.
National Origin Act
This act established a maximum number of immigrants who could enter the U.S. from each country. Eastern and southern Europeans were discriminated against.
Great Migration
This event was during WWI when hundreds of thousands of African Americans migrated to northern U.S. cities for job opportunities and to escape Jim Crow racism.
Henry Ford
He was an engineer and early automobile manufacturer. His goal was to build an automobile that everyone could afford. 1863-1947. American businessman who paid his employees enough so that they could purchase the product they made, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Ku Klux Klan
The increasingly tense race relations in the country saw a resurgence of this group, formerly focused on racial prejudice now included hostility towards immigrants.
Nativism
The term for a dislike of foreigners.
Clarence Darrow
A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when Darrow questioned Bryan about the Bible. (1920s)
Harlem Renaissance
The term for the development of African-American art, literature and music (jazz and blues). Key people included Langston Hughes, Alain Locke and Zora Neale Hurston.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school during the Scopes "Monkey" Trial(1920s)
Return to Normalcy
The name for Warren Harding's plan that included reducing government intervention in the government, high tariffs and an isolationist foreign policy.
Social Darwinism
This is the belief that different human races competed for survival like plants and animals in the natural world.
Eugenics
This policy led to the sterilization of over 64,000 Americans in order to keep the U.S. a superior race. It specifically targeted the mentally ill.
Marcus Garvey
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927. (1920s)
Teapot Dome
The Secretary of the Interior under President Harding leased oil rich government lands to his friends in exchange for bribes. This became known as the Teapot Dome Scandal.
John J. Pershing
He led the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), trained US troops in Europe and helped with the victory in the Battle of Argonne Forest. Before WWI he was sent into Mexico to capture Pancho Villa.
Alvin York
He fought in the Battle of Argonne Forest in WWI. He reportedly killed 25 Germans and captured 132 prisoners. Won Congressional Medal of Freedom (WWI)
Submarine Warfare
After the sinking of the Lusitania, Germans promised to stop this unrestricted action. When they resumed it prompted U.S. entry into WWI.
Glenn Curtiss
The first person to fly a publicly viewed flight. He also manufactured airplanes, built the largest fleet during WWI. Was an American aviation pioneer and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, now part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation. His company sold the first airplanes in the USA. Huge industrial enterprise during WWI Aviation industry pioneer.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican who strongly supported the idea of expansionism for moral reasons, disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was a major opponent to the League of Nations and mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened. (WWI)
Dollar Diplomacy
Taft's economic policy of encouraging investment by U.S. banks and businesses to maintain U.S. world power.
Neutrality
When the war broke out in 1914, the U.S. declared this policy until events push Americans to enter the war.
Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's plan to reorganize Europe, establish self-determination and create the League of nations.
Missionaries
These people supported imperialism as an opportunity for evangelism in other countries, to spread Christianity to other countries.
Expansionism
Americans supported this policy to spread U.S. influence abroad through colonies that would provide raw materials, markets, and naval bases.
Isolationism
American foreign policy return to this after WWI, separating themselves from other countries' affairs.
Trench Warfare
This new form of warfare developed during WWI separated troops by fields of barbed wire known as "no man's land."
Treaty of Versailles
This treaty ended WWI and took away all land holdings from Germany and forced them to accept blame for the war.
Spanish American War
Fought in 1898, the U.S. defeated the Spanish forces in the Philippines proving the strength of the U.S. military.
Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the United States, He initiated the Rough Riders during the Spanish American War, the construction of the Panama Canal and Big Stick Diplomacy. 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, "Big Stick" Policy, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War (Progressive and Imperialism)
Philippines
This country along with Guam and Puerto Rico were acquired after the Spanish American War.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
He wrote Influence of Sea Power Upon History, arguing that to become a world power the U.S. needed a powerful navy. Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy (Imperialism)
Hawaii
This territory was annexed in 1898 by President McKinley after sugar farmers ousted Queen Liliuokalani.
Sanford B. Dole
1894 wealthy, plantation owner and politician who was named President of New Republic of Hawaii. He forced the taking of Hawaii to increase profits and get rid of tariffs. He asked US to annex Hawaii. (Imperialism)
Panama Canal
This was dug through jungle and mountains to create a passage from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
Open Door Policy
The economic policy of President McKinley and Secretary John Hay in China promoting equal trading for all nations.
Nationalism
The belief that each nationality is entitled to its own government and homeland and was one of the causes of WWI.
Machine Guns
These new mechanized weapons used during WWI increased loss of life from previous wars.
American Expeditionary Forces
This group of forces were under the command of General John J. Pershing during World War I. By the end of the war this group included over a quarter of a million Americans.
Battle of Argonne Forest
The largest battle in U.S. history involving over 1 million soldiers, they would be successful in breaking through the German defenses. It was part of the 100 days offensive that would lead to the end of World War I. The U.S. soldiers were led in battle by John J. Pershing.
Guam
In 1898, this was taken by the United States as a result of the Spanish American War.
Poison Gas
Used for the first time in World War I. Because of the horrific nature of the injuries, nations would come together to outlaw its use in future wars.
Puerto Rico
This became an American possession after the Spanish American War.
Schenck v United States
Charles Schenck was arrested for handing out leaflets urging individuals to resist the draft during WWI. He claimed freedom of speech. The Supreme Court ruled that freedom of speech can be limited if the speech creates a "clear and present danger" to others.
Tanks
These were first introduced in World War I.
WWI Causes
Nationalism, Imperialism, Alliance Systems, and Militarism all were causes of WWI along with the immediate cause--the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Airplanes
The first airplanes used in World War I were used primarily for seeing what was going on behind enemy lines.
Susan B. Anthony
She was one of the leaders of the women's rights movement and temperance movements, advocated the 19th amendment and arrested for trying to vote. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1869. (Progressive)
Sixteenth Amendment
This amendment was ratified 1913 creating a graduated income tax
Jane Addams
She created the Hull House in Chicago, a settlement house designed to provide slum poor immigrant neighborhoods with education, child care, and services. 1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement and First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
Populist
This political party represented the "common man" (industrialists/farmers/miners), supported government intervention in business. In the 1896 election they supported WJ Bryan.
Upton Sinclair
Sinclair was a muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen. Led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act (Progressive)
Meat Inspection Act
This act (inspired by The Jungle) was passed in 1906 to require truthful labeling products to protect consumers.
Progressives
This party included mostly middle class citizens who felt threatened by the rise of big business. Their platform included political reforms, worker conditions and women's rights.
Referendum
This is a progressive era reform that allows a citizen to reject or accept a law passed by the legislature.
Nineteenth Amendment
This amendment was ratified in 1920 and granted women the right to vote.
Anti-Trust Acts
These acts, led by Theodore Roosevelt, focused on dissolving unfair business consolidations or monopolies.
Federal Reserve Act
This act, passed in 1913 by Wilson, established the central banking system through 12 central banks to serve as the "banker's banks" and manage the money supply.
National Park System
This system was established by Theodore Roosevelt under the Newlands Reclamation Act to preserve the natural scenery and wildlife for the American people. scenery and wildlife for the American people.
Seventeenth Amendment
This amendment was passed to fight corruption at the state level through the direct election of senators by the people.
Recall
This progressive era reform gave voters the ability to remove an elected official from office in a special election.
Eighteenth Amendment
This amendment was passed in 1919 to eliminate the consumption, manufacture and sale of alcohol.
Muckrakers
Name for those who exposed abuses of industry, corrupt government and unregulated business & demanded reform.
Initiative
This progressive era reform gives voters the right to introduce a bill in the state legislature.
Frances Willard
She founded the Women's Christian Temperance Union. This group was concerned about the destructive effects of alcohol. This group would be instrumental in pushing for the 18th amendment that prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol. Willard also campaigned for woman's suffrage, abstinence from alcohol, reformation of prison systems, abolition of prostitution, and elimination of wage system.
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcars or shop in white owned stores. She would later go on to become one of the founders of the NAACP and one of the first African American women to run for public office. African American journalist.
Pure Food and Drug Act
This act regulated the preparation of foods and the sale of medicines.
W.E.B. DuBois
This Progressive leader is credited with starting the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights.
Andrew Carnegie
This man was the founder of the Carnegie Steel Company & promoted philanthropy among wealthy industrialists known as the Gospel of Wealth. Used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production and distribution of steel. A philanthropist who built libraries, schools and universities. Was one of the "Robber barons" of the Gilded Age.
Gilded Age
Mark Twain coined this phrase to represent an era where things look good on the outside but are not really that good.
Transcontinental Railroad
This was completed in 1869 and connected the East to the West. It led to better communication, trade and closing the frontier.
Cattle
This industry supported the growth of railroads because of the increased demand for beef in the east.
Dawes Act
This act was part of the Americanization movement of Native American tribe. Each family was given 160 acres of reservation land.
Political Machines
These sought control of the cities by offering incentives in exchange for political support. (Ex: Tammany Hall, Boss Tweed)
Labor Unions
These are formed in response to poor working conditions and low wages. (Ex: Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor)
Klondike
In 1896, a discovery near this river in Alaska caused a rush for gold that brought miners to the west.
Free Enterprise
This economic system allows people to expand their business as they choose and leads to the development of new industries.
Chinese Exclusion Act
This was the first (1882) to limit the immigration of a specific group. It also eased job competition by forcing the Chinese into railroad jobs.
Populism
This idea developed because of the issues of the farmers including lower crop prices, overcharging railroad costs and supporting bimetallism.
Rural
Americans move from this to the urban areas because of increased job opportunities in the cities.
Entrepreneurs
These individuals brought new innovations and capital to expand American industry.
Laissez Faire
This theory refers to a lack of government interference in American business through regulations.
Big Business
During the Gilded Age, the economy saw a rise in this, often seen as more efficient but also as unfair competition.
Gospel of Wealth
This was written by Andrew Carnegie, encouraging philanthropy among wealthy industrialists, to use their money to give back to society.
Urbanization
This is caused by the increase of immigrants and individuals locating to the cities & can lead to overcrowding, tenements, poor sanitation).
Immigrants
This group of people who came to America were opposed by Nativists and attributed to urbanization.
Civil Service
This type of reform required government jobs be granted on merit and example is the Pendleton Act.
Railroads
The growth of this industry allowed for increased movement of goods to markets, westward settlement and better communication.
Interstate Commerce Act
This act was created to regulate shipping rates and other railroad abuses in the government's attempt to begin regulating big business.
Standard of Living
The new technological innovations in both transportation and communication saw an improvement in this for Americans.
Manifest Destiny
Westward expansion was driven by this belief that Americans were destined to settle across the continent.
Social Gospel
The religious revival that focused on the problems in urban areas, people could gain salvation by serving the poor.
Homestead Act
This act motivated more Americans to settle in the west by promising 160 acres in exchange for cultivating the land for 5 years.
Collective Bargaining
Negotiations between employees and employers regarding the conditions of employment. This can prevent strikes.
Industrialization
New inventions led to the growth of industry in the United States. This in turn led to a move to urban centers (cities) where individuals often found themselves living in crowded conditions.
Philanthropy
The practice of giving money to help make life better for others. This was practiced by Captains of Industry during the Progressive Era.
Urban
This term has to do with cities.
Americanization
This process was designed to make immigrants more "Americanized". It included learning to dress, speak, and act like other Americans. This was done through the schools.
Barack Obama
He was elected as the first African American president in the 2008 election.
Bill Clinton
This president was impeached by the House but acquitted by the Senate for perjury involving a political scandal.
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
Pass by Congress to reduce discriminatory credit practices against low-income neighborhoods.
Contract with America
This was published by the Republican party, outlining their conservative policies towards taxes, spending and government size.
Election of 2000
This election ended up being decided by the U.S. Supreme Court following a problem with the counting of ballots in Florida. President George W. Bush ended up winning the electoral vote over Al Gore.
Energy crisis
In 1973, US support for Israel led to an oil embargo by OPEC countries. This caused high gasoline prices for Americans and in some areas, shortages at gas stations.
GATT
(Acronym) This organization was designed to reduce tariffs. It was later replaced by the World Trade Organization.
Hillary Clinton
The First Lady appointed to bring national attention to health care reform.
Hurricane Katrina
This hurricane led to the evacuation of 80% of New Orleans. It holds the record for the highest storm surge and costliest hurricane.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In 1979, militants held the US Embassy hostage for 444 days. Carter's greatest challenge and led to his defeat in 1980.
Robert Johnson
The founder of Black Entertainment Television (BET). He was the first African American billionaire following the sale of his television network to Viacom.
Medicare
During Clinton's first term, he appointed his wife to chair a committee to focus on the future and reform of this health care program.
NAFTA
(Acronym) This agreement passed by Clinton created a common market between Mexico, Canada and the U.S. removing trade barriers and tariffs.
Richard M Nixon
President of the United States that was instrumental in improving relations with China. This followed the U.S. policy of not wanting to work with countries that were communist. He ushered in a period of "detente" which means a relaxation of tensions during the Cold War period. He later resigned following the Watergate Scandal.
Oprah Winfrey
She is one of the world's wealthiest women and entertainers. She greatly impacted President Obama's campaign with her endorsement.
Patriot Act
In response to 9/11, Congress passed this act to provide law enforcement agencies more resources to combat foreign and domestic terrorism by allowing them to search private records.
Peace through Strength
President Ronald Reagan's policy of building a strong peacetime military. The Soviet's attempt to keep up with the U.S. pushed their economy to the brink.
Persian Gulf War
The U.S. led the UN to remove Saddam Hussein from Kuwait to secure oil reserves in the Middle East during this conflict.
United Nations
This international organization was created following World War II with the hope that it would prevent future world wars.
War on Terror
After the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the U.S. began this campaign to fight terrorism. This war led to the deaths of Saddam Hussein and Osama Bin Laden.
World Trade Center
This location was one of the targets hit during the 9/11 attack.
The Silent Majority
The name Nixon gave to the part of the population that worked, paid taxes and supported the government.
13th amendment
This amendment ended slavery.
I Have a Dream
This speech by Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington focused on civil rights.
Desegregation
Harry Truman supported this policy to end racial separation in the armed forces with Executive Order 9981.
Black Panthers
This group of activists worked against problems in the ghetto and for self-sufficiency of African-Americans.
Affirmative Action
This was Kennedy's plan increase minority representation in colleges, professions and businesses.
Voting Rights Act
This act in 1965 eliminated obstacles for African Americans and increased the federal governments power over voting.
Martin Luther King Jr.
He promoted civil disobedience and led the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
14th amendment
This amendment guaranteed for citizen rights for everyone.
Lobbying
This strategy is used to convice Congress to vote a certain way.
George Wallace
He was the Governor of Alabama that worked against the integration of the Univ. of Alabama.
Cesar Chavez
He organized the migrant farm workers union to defend Hispanic migrant workers.
Betty Friedan
American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique" which argued against the traditional role of women. She also cofounded NOW and is credited for inspiring the modern women's liberation movement.(1960s)
Phyllis Schlafly
Anti-feminist and an outspoken critic of the Equal Rights Amendment and Women's Liberation Movement. She believed it threatened the rights of wives and harmed family life.
Education
Title IX amended the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to end gender discrimination to these programs.
Orval Faubus
He was the governor of Arkansas who ordered the National Guard to prevent the Little Rock 9 from integrating Central High.
Birmingham Jail
Martin Luther King Jr. wrote a letter from this location expressing why African Americans could no longer wait for equality.
Rosa Parks
She was arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat on a segregated bus. This led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Non violent protest
This strategy was promoted by Martin Luther King Jr., Ghandi, and many others instead of more aggressive tactics.
15th amendment
This amendment guaranteed the right to vote for all men regardless of race.
Thurgood Marshall
He was appointed Chief Counsel for the NAACP and became the first African American Supreme Court Justice.
Beat Generation
The name for writers in 50s that rebelled against the conformity of their era. They preferred to be care-free & often reckless.
19th amendment
This amendment guaranteed the right to vote regardless of gender.
Civil Rights Act
Passed in 1957 to increase African American voting & in 1964 to prohibit discrimination in business engaged in interstate commerce.
American Indian Movement
This part of the Civil Rights Movement focused on the U.S. honoring it's existing treaties with the American Indians as well as a recognition of their culture. Their protests included occupying government monuments on Alcatraz and Wounded Knee.
Chicano Mural Movement
This movement was an expression of Mexican American culture. The murals became an important expression of their identity.
Hector P. Garcia
He moved to Texas as a young man when his family fled the Mexican Revolution. The discrimination he witnessed against Mexican Americans during WWII led him to form the American GI forum to focus on increasing veterans' benefits for Mexican Americans. He was awarded the American Medal of Freedom in 1984 for his community activism.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v US
The Supreme Court ruled that Congress did have the power, under the Commerce clause, to regulate discrimination in public accommodations.
Delores Huerta
She co-founded the United Farm Workers of America along with Cesar Chavez. Her leadership in the national grape boycott resulted in the California grape industry agreeing to collective bargaining rights for workers.
Judicial Interpretation
This term refers to the courts ruling on law or policy where they interpret the policy broadly and in some cases might be seen as making a new policy by its interpretation.
Litigation
To "litigate" means to sue. Litigation was a tactic used in the Civil Rights movement. Many groups used the courts in an attempt to secure rights for minorities.
Title IX
This part of the Elementary and Secondary Act banned gender discrimination in educational settings. It promoted gender equity by requiring the same opportunities for women (most often in the area of sports).
Vietnamization
The term for President Nixon's plan to replace American troops with trained South Vietnamese forces.
Anti War
Student protests on college campuses became more radical as the war escalated. Examples such as Kent State and the Weatherman Underground showed the new level of violence in some cases.
Credibility gap
This was the result of the inconsistency between government reports and media reports on the war. It led to suspician and distrust of government.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
This policy allowed President Johnson to defend U.S. forces by whatever means necessary giving the executive branch freedom to escalate hostilities without Congressional approval.
Saigon
The fall of this city to communist forces created a refugee crisis and marked the end of the Vietnam War.
Vietnam War
The US supported the South Vietnamese in this conflict against the Vietcong.
Media
This industry had a great influence on shaping public opinon on the war. (Newspaper, TV, Radio)
Draft
Many young people opposed this policy by burning documents, protesting, and fleeing to Canada.
Domino Theory
The belief that if one country becomes Communist it threatens the freedom of neighboring countries.
Cambodia
The invasion of this country aligned with the escalation of air campaigns to cut off North Korean supplies and force negotiations.
War Powers Act
This act restricted the ability of the executive branch to use force by requiring Congressional approval
Roy Benavidez
A war hero of Vietnam, who had been presented with the Congressional Medal of Honor by Reagan. This man received the Medal of Honor for his bravery under constant fire to secure the safety of fellow wounded soldiers. He had 37 wounds yet refused care until all were evacuated. (1980s)
26th amendment
This amendment lowered the required voting age from 21 to 18 in response to protests and in support of the young people who served in Vietnam.
Tet Offensive
In 1968 this event was a series of failed attacks by the Vietcong and resulted in turning American opinion against the war.
New Frontier
This was the name for Kennedy's domestic and foreign program to expand social programs, end poverty and initiate the Peace Corps.
Great Society
The name for President Johnson's reform program including the Civil Rights Act, Medicare and the War on Poverty.
Barry Goldwater
A candidate for President in 1964, he lost to Lyndon B. Johnson by one of the biggest landslides in U.S. History. Many consider him to be the founder of the modern conservative movement within the Republican party.
Sputnik
In 1957, Soviets launched the first man-made satellite escalating tensions and resulting in an arms race
McCarthyism
This is the name for the era of investigations based on accusations of suspected communists.
Cuban Missile Crisis
This event is considered the high point of nuclear tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
HUAC
(Acronym) This group led investigations of suspected communists and fascists. Many who were questioned by this committee included actors and directors.
Venona Papers
In 1995 these documents were released confirming the identities of Soviet spies in the American government and other industries.
Berlin Airlift
President Truman authorized this policy to send daily supplies to West Berlin in response to Soviet blockades.
Truman Doctrine
In 1947 this policy was passed to assist nations in preventing communist takeovers. It initially focused on Greece and Turkey and later opened to all.
Korean War
This was the first significant armed conflict between communist and non-communist forces. It ends with an armistice on the 38th parallel.
NATO
(Acronym) This was a military alliance formed in 1949 to provide collective security against communist aggression.
Marshall Plan
In 1948 this plan extended efforts to prevent communist takeovers by providing economic aid to war torn countries in Europe.
Containment
This policy was used by Americans to prevent Communism from spreading further not overturning it where it existed.
Rosenburgs
This couple was tried and executed for selling secrets to the Soviet Union to make the atomic bomb.
Education
After Sputnik, the U.S. increased funding for this field (especially math and science) to improve American ability to compete with the Soviets.
Arms Race
In 1949 the Soviet Union developed their own atomic weapon, this led to a race between the United States and the Soviet Union as to who could develop more powerful weapons.
Space Race
In 1957, the Soviets successfully launched the first satellite into space. This led to more federal spending by the U.S. government in science education. The United States was the first to land a man on the moon.
Barack Obama
elected as the first African American president of the US in 2008
Bill Gates
American computer software designer who Co-founded Microsoft and built it into one of the Largest computer software manufacturers Entrepreneur and philanthropist (modern times)
Sam Walton
Wal-mart and Sam's Club and emphasized logistical efficiency, such as locating stores near regional warehouses and distributing via the company's own trucking service. He changed the discount store market with the creation of Wal-Mart.
Estée Lauder
One of the wealthiest self-made women in America. Entrepreneur who built her cosmetics empire on the dream of every woman: to feel beautiful; emphasized a personal sales approach
Robert Johnson
first black billionaire in the United States who created Black Entertainment Television, which was the first black controlled company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange
Lionel Sosa
He is the founder of Bromley Communications, the largest Hispanic advertising agency in the United States. His successes in organizing campaigns for Hispanic candidates world lead him to serve as the Hispanic media consultant in six Republican campaigns. Most recently for George W. Bush in 2004.
Hillary Clinton
maintained a significant career as First Lady from 1992-2000; promoted equality of sexes, was a Democratic primary nominee for presidental election, in 2008; served as Secretary of State during Barack Obama's first term as president
Sonia Sotomayor
appointed to the Supreme Court by President Obama in 2009; the first Hispanic Justice and third woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.
Oprah Winfrey
one of the wealthiest women in the world and the highest paid entertainer in the world, endorsed Barack Obama - giving his campaign a significant boost and helping him edge out Hillary Clinton among women voters in the Democratic primaries
Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President - He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWII. Lend-lease Act, Gave "Infamy Speech" and declared war on Japan in 1941, gave the order to send Japanese Americans to internment camps, died before war ended.
Albert Einstein
German-born physicist who helped persuade Roosevelt to develop the atomic bomb ahead of the Germans
Dorie Miller
1st black American to earn the Navy Cross for his heroic actions during the Pearl Harbor attack
Martin Luther King Jr.
Nonviolent Civil Rights leader who became youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination. Led Montgomery Bus Boycott, helped found Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and led March on Washington in 1963 where he delivered "I have a Dream" speech.
Cesar Chavez
Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later called the United Farm Workers, who led nonviolent protests, strikes, fasts, and boycotts to draw attention to the needs of migrant farm laborers.
Rosa Parks
NAACP member who initiated the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 when she was arrested for violating Jim Crow rules on a bus
George Wallace
Governor of Alabama who widely and openly opposed integration of public schools, and has been famously quoted as saying, "I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever."
Orval Faubus
Governor of Arkansas during the time of the Little Rock Crisis who attempted to block the integration of the school by using the National Guard. Led to a confrontation with Eisenhower and ultimately integration of the school
Lester Maddox
Governor of Georgia from 1967-1971; known for forcefully removing African Americans from the restaurant he owned; once he became governor, he appointed more African Americans to government positions than all previous governors combined
Thurgood Marshall
NAACP civil rights lawyer in Brown v. Board of Education who became the first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States
Barry Goldwater
Unsuccessful Republican presidential candidate against Lyndon Johnson in 1964; called for dismantling the New Deal, escalation of the war in Vietnam, and maintaining the previous status quo on civil rights. Some see him as the grandfather of the conservative movement of the 1980s
Dolores Huerta
Co-founded the United Farm Workers, advocated for Chicano rights, immigrants, women's rights, and farm workers; negotiated the first contract with grape growers and a non-white union
Hector P. Garcia
Mexican American physician, surgeon, WWII veteran, civil rights activist, and founder of the American G.I. Forum for equal treatment of Mexican Americans
Congressional bloc of Southern Democrats
Conservative southern Democrats who worked to block the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by relying on a filibuster in the Senate to postpone the legislation as long as possible, hoping that support for the legislation throughout the country would falter
bull market
a long period of rising stock prices
installment plan
buying an item on credit with a monthly plan to pay off the value of the good
margin
buying a stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest
speculation
investing money at great risk with the anticipation that prices will rise
stock market
a system for buying and selling shares of companies
margin call
a demand by the broker that the investor repay the loan at once
uneven distribution of wealth
the top 5% of all American households earned 30% of the nation's income; about 2/3 of families earned less than $2,500 a year and had little expendable income
Overproduction
situation in which more products are being created than people can afford to buy
monetary policy
government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates
shantytown
Collections of makeshift shelters built out of packing boxes, scrap lumber, corrugated iron, and other thrown-away items
Bonus Army
Unemployed World War I veterans who came to Washington in the spring of 1932 to demand the immediate payment of the bonus congress had voted them in 1922. The veterans were forcibly removed by federal troops under the command of Douglas MacArthur.
deportation
Being sent back home, the removal or banishment of someone.
repatriation
Efforts made by local governments and/or the federal government to encourage or make Mexican immigrants and their naturalized children return to Mexico
gold standard
a monetary policy requiring that every paper dollar in circulation be backed by a dollar's worth of gold in the United States Treasury
deficit spending
a government's practice of spending more money than it receives in revenue, the difference being made up by borrowing
fireside chats
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
AAA- Gave farmers money to reduce crop size to reduce production and bring up the value of crops
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
a work-relief program established in 1933, as part of the First Hundred Days of the New Dealm, to provide work for unemployed Americans during the Great Depression
National Labor Relations Board
NLRB- 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-management relations.
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
as part of the New Deal, a law passed by Congress in 1933 to increase production while boosting wages and prices; it created the National Recovery Administration
Era
A period of history defined by a common, unifying theme that can last for any length of time
Modernization
Transformation from a rural, agrarian society to an urban, industrialized society
Overpopulation
When the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
Conservation
Managing natural resources carefully to meet the needs of people
Urbanization
Mass movement of people from farms to cities; growth of city into surrounding countryside
Turning Point
Moment in history that marks a decisive change
Primary Source
A source of information that comes from the time period you are studying
Secondary Source
Information gathered by someone who did not take part in or witness an event
Sequencing
Arranging information, concepts, and actions in order
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals. (early times)
Benjamin Rush
Sons of Liberty Member, signed Declaration of Independence, supported Federal Constitution, 1745?- 1813 patriot and doctor; signer of the Declaration of Independence and strong supporter of the Constitution (founding father)
John Hancock
Easily recognized signature from declaration of Independence, President of Continental Congress, A merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. Served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was one of Boston's leaders during the crisis that led to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. Famous for writing his signature in a large fashion on the Declaration of Independence. (founding father)
John Jay
wrote the federalist where he supported a federalist constitution , American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty (founding father)
John Witherspoon
Member of the first congress voted for declaration of independence, American Revolutionary leader and educator (born in Scotland) who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and president of the college that became Princeton University (Founding Father)
John Peter Muhlenberg
an American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, he served in the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Pennsylvania; (Founding father)
Charles Carroll
Signer of the Declaration of Independence who showed patriotism at the time of the Revolutionary War helping to pave the way for a greater acceptance of Catholics in the new nation (founding father)
Jonathan Trumbull Sr.
Was an advisor to George Washington throughout the Revolutionary War. Was the only colonial governor to continue in office throughout the American Revolution. (founding father)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.