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90 terms

Criminology Test 3

Developmental theorists attempt to provide a natural history of criminal behavior by encompassing
its onset, continuation, and termination
Latent trait theorists believe human development is controlled by a master trait present at birth or soon after that
increases propensity to crime
How do life course theorists view criminality?
as a dynamic process
Using data from a longitudinal study of youth, Loeber identified distinct pathways to crime. Which pathway begins at an early age with stubborn behavior?
the authority conflict pathway
According to latent trait theory, when does a latent trait appear?
at birth or soon after
The general theory of crime considers the criminal offender and the criminal acts as _ aspects of criminality
Children exposed to violence at home, at school, or in the environment may adopt violent methods themselves. Which children are most likely to engage in violent behavior?
those exposed to violence in the home and who live in a neighborhood with high violence rates
First degree murder occurs when a person kills another after _ and deliberation
A number of research studies have been focused on armed robbery, what have they found?
robbers are rational decision makers who look for easy prey
_ are typically located in rural areas and attack miliatry, police, and government targets in an effort to unseat or replace the existing government
This term began to be used during the iraq war and described the forces opposed to American involvement. Members are typically organized into covert groups who engage in organized campaigns of violence aimed at popular uprising
Criminologists suspect that, of the millions of property theft realted crimes that occur each year, most are commited by
occasional criminals
False pretenses or fraud differs from traditional larceny because
the victims willingly give their posessions to the offender
Why do most juristicitions punish burglary as a felony?
because the potential for harm to the occupants is significant
Ralph stole a car and drove around for a few hours showing it off. What type of auto crime is it?
Developmental theories attempt to explain
the natural history of a criminal career, its onset, the course it follows, and its termination
Life course theories
reflecting the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by many characteristics, traits, and experiences, and that behavior changes accordingly overtime
Determines adult life course
relationships and behaviors
Problem behavior syndrome
a cluster of antisocial behvaiors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, precocious sexuality, physical abuse, education, underachievement, suicide attempts, unemployment - crime is a social problem rather than a result of other social problems
Pathways to Crime (Authority Conflict)
begins with early stubborn behavior and defiance of parents
Pathways to Crime (Covert)
begins with minor underhanded behavior and progressed to property damage and theft
Pathways to Crime (Overt)
begins with minor agression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually ends with violent crime
Latent Trait Theory
crime is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after that remains stable and unchanging throughout a persons lifetime
Age-graded theory
discrete factors influence people at different stages in their development, so the propensity to commit crimes is neither stable nor unyielding
Turning points
life events that alter criminal behavior
Social capital
positive life sustaining relations with institutions, places, ect..
General Theory of Crime
impulsive personality, lack of self control, act and offender (seperated)
General Theory Critique Tautological
logic behind theory is circular
Unlawful killing of a human with malice (wish to do harm) aforethought
First Degree Murder
premeditation & deliberation
Second Degree Murder
disregard for the victims life and their desire to inflict bodily harm to the victim results in the victims death
homicide without wish to do harm
Voluntary Manslaughter
killing commited in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel that provoked violence
Involuntary manslaughter
killing that occurs when a persons acts are negligent and without regard for the harm they may cause - drunk driving
Muderous relations involve
someone you know unless its a robbery or drug deal
Serial Killers
person who kills 3 or more people in 3 or more seperate events
Mass Murderer
killing of 4 or more by one or a few assailants with a single even - columbine
Spree Killers
killer of multiple victims whose murders ocur over a relatively short span of time and often have no pattern
offensive touching, slapping, hitting or punching
attempted battery or intentionally frightening a victim by word or deed
taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody or control of people by force or theat of force or violence and or putting the victim in fear
often not taken seriously by courts, add more
people who systematically attack or threaten violence for political demands
nationalist or localist groups that engage in civil war against a soverign power that holds control of land
(History of Theft) Skilled Thieves
worked in large cities
(History of Theft) Smugglers
movers and shakers
(History of Theft) Poachers
illegally killed game
Occasional Criminals
do not define themselves by a criminal role or view, motivated by inducement, oppurtunity or need.
Professional Criminals
offenders who make a significant portion of their income from crime
taking for ones own use the property of another, by means other than force or threats on the victim or forcible breaking into a persons home or workplace
Constructive Possession
when a person voluntarily gives up physical custody of their property by retain legal ownership
Petty Larceny
theft or a small amount of money or property, punished as a misdemeanor
Grand Larceny
theft of money or property of substantial value, pnished as a felony
(Shoplifting) Booster
professional shoplifter who steals with intention of reselling stolen merchandise
(Shoplifting) Merchant Privilidge Laws
allows employees to apprehend someone who looks suspicious
(Shoplifting) Target Removal Strategy
showing fake merchandise such as a cardboard VCR to prevent stealing
(Shoplifting) Target hardening strategy
locking up valuables
Latent Trait
stable feature, characteristic property or condition present at birth or soon after, that makes some people crime prone
Wilson & Herrnstein crime and Human nature
all human behavior, including criminality, is determined by its perceieved consequences. A criminal incident occurs when an individual chooses over conventional behvaior. They assume that both biological and psychological traits influence the choice between crime and non crime.
General Theory of Crime
people with limited self-control tend to be insensitive to other peoples feelings - predisposed to physical rather than mental solutions, the root cause is inadequate child-rearing
Define Rape
the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will
Why men commit rape
focus on evolutionary, biological aspects of male sexual drive. Some say its a form of socialization. Rape arises primarily from a desire to inflict pain and humilation, but there is evidence that at least some rapists have sexual feelings for their victims
Issues involving rape and the law
proving guilt in rape case is extremely challenging. Its essential to prove that the attack was forced and that the victim did not give consent.
Robbery traits
many chose victims who are already involved in illegal behaviors (ex. drug dealers). Also, females likely attack females.
Hate Crimes (bias crimes)
violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of another group because they are a diff race
specific person, repeated physical proximity, nonconsensual communication, written or implied theats
Workplace violence
3rd leading cause of occupational injury or death
(Forms of Terrorism) Revolutionary
use of violence to replace the existing government with a regime that holds acceptible political or religious views
(Forms of Terrorism) Political
directed at people who are opposite to the terrorists ideology
(Forms of Terrorism) National
promotes interests of a minority ethnic group that believes it has been persecuted under majority rule
(Forms of Terrorism) Retributive
impose their social and religious code on others
(Forms of Terrorism) State-sponsored
represenative government regime forces its citizens into obedience, oppress minorities, and stifles political dissent
(Forms of Terrorism) Environmental
violence in an effort to slow down developers who they believe are threatening the environment or harming animals
(Forms of Terrorism) Criminal
common-law crimes such as drug dealing or kidnapping
Motivations of Terrorists
no single personality trait, some hold extreme ideologies and schooling, people who engage in state-sponsored terrorism are highly susceptible to unquestioning submission to authority
National Counterterrorism Center
responsible for analyzing and integrating all intelligence
reformation of priorities, making protection from terrorists the first
Department of Homeland Security
responsible for preventing terrorist attacks within united states
Amateur theives
commit majoirty of economic crimes
theft $100-500 , misdemanor
theft over $500, felony
Amateur shoplifting
spur of the moment, for personal use
involves tricking victims into giving up their goods or money under false pretenses
involves people taking something that was temporarily entrusted to them, ex. bank tellers stealing money for themselves
Pro car theives
steal cars to sell valuable parts
Amateur car theives
joy riders who borrom cars for short term transportation
Good Burglar
pro theives. involves planning and risk. Size up value of crime and balance it against risks. Learn from other pros.
Male Burglars
steal cars to supplement income, work alone, start younger, more likely to repeat offenses
Female burlgars
more likely to work with a partner
Reasons people commit arson
malicious burning of a home or thing. burn commerical buildings for profit. Onwers of commerical buildings may resort to arson to get rid of outdated inventory, to qualify for government redevelopment funds, to collect insurance, to claim loss of merchandise already sold, or to eliminate compeition