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Developmental theorists attempt to provide a natural history of criminal behavior by encompassing

its onset, continuation, and termination

Latent trait theorists believe human development is controlled by a master trait present at birth or soon after that

increases propensity to crime

How do life course theorists view criminality?

as a dynamic process

Using data from a longitudinal study of youth, Loeber identified distinct pathways to crime. Which pathway begins at an early age with stubborn behavior?

the authority conflict pathway

According to latent trait theory, when does a latent trait appear?

at birth or soon after

The general theory of crime considers the criminal offender and the criminal acts as _ aspects of criminality


Children exposed to violence at home, at school, or in the environment may adopt violent methods themselves. Which children are most likely to engage in violent behavior?

those exposed to violence in the home and who live in a neighborhood with high violence rates

First degree murder occurs when a person kills another after _ and deliberation


A number of research studies have been focused on armed robbery, what have they found?

robbers are rational decision makers who look for easy prey

_ are typically located in rural areas and attack miliatry, police, and government targets in an effort to unseat or replace the existing government


This term began to be used during the iraq war and described the forces opposed to American involvement. Members are typically organized into covert groups who engage in organized campaigns of violence aimed at popular uprising


Criminologists suspect that, of the millions of property theft realted crimes that occur each year, most are commited by

occasional criminals

False pretenses or fraud differs from traditional larceny because

the victims willingly give their posessions to the offender

Why do most juristicitions punish burglary as a felony?

because the potential for harm to the occupants is significant

Ralph stole a car and drove around for a few hours showing it off. What type of auto crime is it?


Developmental theories attempt to explain

the natural history of a criminal career, its onset, the course it follows, and its termination

Life course theories

reflecting the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by many characteristics, traits, and experiences, and that behavior changes accordingly overtime

Determines adult life course

relationships and behaviors

Problem behavior syndrome

a cluster of antisocial behvaiors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, precocious sexuality, physical abuse, education, underachievement, suicide attempts, unemployment - crime is a social problem rather than a result of other social problems

Pathways to Crime (Authority Conflict)

begins with early stubborn behavior and defiance of parents

Pathways to Crime (Covert)

begins with minor underhanded behavior and progressed to property damage and theft

Pathways to Crime (Overt)

begins with minor agression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually ends with violent crime

Latent Trait Theory

crime is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after that remains stable and unchanging throughout a persons lifetime

Age-graded theory

discrete factors influence people at different stages in their development, so the propensity to commit crimes is neither stable nor unyielding

Turning points

life events that alter criminal behavior

Social capital

positive life sustaining relations with institutions, places, ect..

General Theory of Crime

impulsive personality, lack of self control, act and offender (seperated)

General Theory Critique Tautological

logic behind theory is circular


Unlawful killing of a human with malice (wish to do harm) aforethought

First Degree Murder

premeditation & deliberation

Second Degree Murder

disregard for the victims life and their desire to inflict bodily harm to the victim results in the victims death


homicide without wish to do harm

Voluntary Manslaughter

killing commited in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel that provoked violence

Involuntary manslaughter

killing that occurs when a persons acts are negligent and without regard for the harm they may cause - drunk driving

Muderous relations involve

someone you know unless its a robbery or drug deal

Serial Killers

person who kills 3 or more people in 3 or more seperate events

Mass Murderer

killing of 4 or more by one or a few assailants with a single even - columbine

Spree Killers

killer of multiple victims whose murders ocur over a relatively short span of time and often have no pattern


offensive touching, slapping, hitting or punching


attempted battery or intentionally frightening a victim by word or deed


taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody or control of people by force or theat of force or violence and or putting the victim in fear


often not taken seriously by courts, add more


people who systematically attack or threaten violence for political demands


nationalist or localist groups that engage in civil war against a soverign power that holds control of land

(History of Theft) Skilled Thieves

worked in large cities

(History of Theft) Smugglers

movers and shakers

(History of Theft) Poachers

illegally killed game

Occasional Criminals

do not define themselves by a criminal role or view, motivated by inducement, oppurtunity or need.

Professional Criminals

offenders who make a significant portion of their income from crime


taking for ones own use the property of another, by means other than force or threats on the victim or forcible breaking into a persons home or workplace

Constructive Possession

when a person voluntarily gives up physical custody of their property by retain legal ownership

Petty Larceny

theft or a small amount of money or property, punished as a misdemeanor

Grand Larceny

theft of money or property of substantial value, pnished as a felony

(Shoplifting) Booster

professional shoplifter who steals with intention of reselling stolen merchandise

(Shoplifting) Merchant Privilidge Laws

allows employees to apprehend someone who looks suspicious

(Shoplifting) Target Removal Strategy

showing fake merchandise such as a cardboard VCR to prevent stealing

(Shoplifting) Target hardening strategy

locking up valuables

Latent Trait

stable feature, characteristic property or condition present at birth or soon after, that makes some people crime prone

Wilson & Herrnstein crime and Human nature

all human behavior, including criminality, is determined by its perceieved consequences. A criminal incident occurs when an individual chooses over conventional behvaior. They assume that both biological and psychological traits influence the choice between crime and non crime.

General Theory of Crime

people with limited self-control tend to be insensitive to other peoples feelings - predisposed to physical rather than mental solutions, the root cause is inadequate child-rearing

Define Rape

the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will

Why men commit rape

focus on evolutionary, biological aspects of male sexual drive. Some say its a form of socialization. Rape arises primarily from a desire to inflict pain and humilation, but there is evidence that at least some rapists have sexual feelings for their victims

Issues involving rape and the law

proving guilt in rape case is extremely challenging. Its essential to prove that the attack was forced and that the victim did not give consent.

Robbery traits

many chose victims who are already involved in illegal behaviors (ex. drug dealers). Also, females likely attack females.

Hate Crimes (bias crimes)

violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of another group because they are a diff race


specific person, repeated physical proximity, nonconsensual communication, written or implied theats

Workplace violence

3rd leading cause of occupational injury or death

(Forms of Terrorism) Revolutionary

use of violence to replace the existing government with a regime that holds acceptible political or religious views

(Forms of Terrorism) Political

directed at people who are opposite to the terrorists ideology

(Forms of Terrorism) National

promotes interests of a minority ethnic group that believes it has been persecuted under majority rule

(Forms of Terrorism) Retributive

impose their social and religious code on others

(Forms of Terrorism) State-sponsored

represenative government regime forces its citizens into obedience, oppress minorities, and stifles political dissent

(Forms of Terrorism) Environmental

violence in an effort to slow down developers who they believe are threatening the environment or harming animals

(Forms of Terrorism) Criminal

common-law crimes such as drug dealing or kidnapping

Motivations of Terrorists

no single personality trait, some hold extreme ideologies and schooling, people who engage in state-sponsored terrorism are highly susceptible to unquestioning submission to authority

National Counterterrorism Center

responsible for analyzing and integrating all intelligence


reformation of priorities, making protection from terrorists the first

Department of Homeland Security

responsible for preventing terrorist attacks within united states

Amateur theives

commit majoirty of economic crimes


theft $100-500 , misdemanor


theft over $500, felony

Amateur shoplifting

spur of the moment, for personal use


involves tricking victims into giving up their goods or money under false pretenses


involves people taking something that was temporarily entrusted to them, ex. bank tellers stealing money for themselves

Pro car theives

steal cars to sell valuable parts

Amateur car theives

joy riders who borrom cars for short term transportation

Good Burglar

pro theives. involves planning and risk. Size up value of crime and balance it against risks. Learn from other pros.

Male Burglars

steal cars to supplement income, work alone, start younger, more likely to repeat offenses

Female burlgars

more likely to work with a partner

Reasons people commit arson

malicious burning of a home or thing. burn commerical buildings for profit. Onwers of commerical buildings may resort to arson to get rid of outdated inventory, to qualify for government redevelopment funds, to collect insurance, to claim loss of merchandise already sold, or to eliminate compeition

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