Skin (Anatomy and Physiology)

integumentary system
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Terms in this set (103)
function of stratum corneumprotect deeper cells from external environment, from water loss, and help body resist biological, chemical, and physical assaultsstratum basaledivision layer where cell division happensepidermal dendritic cellscells scattered in the epidermis that alert and activate immune system cells to a threat, like bacteria or virusesmelanocytesproduce melanin pigmentmelanin, blood flow, cartenewhat causes skin color?dermismade of mostly dense connective tissuepapillary layer_____________ contains: -dermal papillae -capillary loops -pain receptorsdermal paillaepeglike projections in the papillary layercapillary loops____________ bring nutrients to epidermisreticular layer____________ contains -irregular arranged connective tissue -blood vessels -sweat glands -oil glands -lamellar corpuscles -phagocyteslamellar corpuscles________________ are deep pressure receptorsphagocytes________________ stop bacteria from penetrating further into the bodyhypodermis_________________ is made of adipose tissueadipose tissuehypodermis is made of _________________function of hypodermisanchor the skin to the underlying organs and provide storage for nutrients and fatsebaceous glandsoil glands found all over the skin (except on soles of feet and palms)sebumSebaceous gland empty ___________ into hair follicles and skin's surface, which softens and moistens the skin and hair and kills bacteriasudoriferous glands______________ are sweat glands and widely distributed in the skineccrine glands-far more of these -produce sweat -help regulate the body's temperature, because they excerpt sweat when the body or outside environment is hotapocrine glands-mainly found in axillary (armpit) and genital areas -large of the two sweat glands -end with hair follicles secret fatty acids, proteins, and sweat -activated during pain, sexual foreplay, and stresshair-produced by follicles made from a flexible epithelial structure made out of dead cells -provides minimal protection by keeping out particles, guarding and shielding head, and providing insulationarrector pili-small bands of smooth muscle cells that connect hair follicle to dermal tissue -when they contract, pull hair up, creating "goose bumps"goose bumps_____________ are created when arrector pili pull up the hair to add air as insulation (doesn't help humans)nailsmodification of the epidermis that is scalelike, like a hoof or clawparts of the nail-free edge -body (visible attached area) -root (embedded in the skin)nail foldsthe borders where the nails meet skin foldscuticleedge of the thick proximal nail foldnail bedepidermis' stratum basale extending beneath the nailnail matrix-thickened proximal part -responsible for nail growthlunulewhite part of the nail due to the lack of oxygen in the bloodfunctions of the skin-protection -regulates water loss -produces vitamin DUV radiationmelanocytes protect it from ______________bacteriaOuter dead cells of skin protects from ____________waterproofSkin is ____________ due to oilsdigestive, skeletalVitamin D made in the skin used by ________________ and ______________ systemcalcitriolVitamin D is converted in liver/kidneys into hormone _____________liver, kidneysVitamin D converted in _____________ and ________________ into hormone calcitriolrickets, SADLack of Vitamin D causes _____________ and ______________sensorySkin gathers ______________ information about external environmentthings the skin can feeltouch, pressure, hot, and coldmusclesHeat is produced in the _______________ and given off by the skinbody temperatureSkin helps regulate __________________blood vessels______________ dilate or constrict to regulate blood flow and temperatureincreasesBlood flow _______________ to get rid of heatdecreasesBlood flow _________________ to retain heatbleedWound has to hit the dermis to ____________clotDamaged tissues release chemicals that cause the blood to ____________airWhen the clot is exposed to ______________ it dries to form a scabWhite blood cells___________________ kill pathogens and debrisFibroblasts_____________ rebuild tissuesPuss_______________ in a wound means there is an infectionbasal layerThe ________________ of the epidermis produces new cells faster to fill a woundfibersFibroblasts make _________________scarFibroblasts proliferate forming a _______________collagen fibersThe scar is composed of ________________functionScars don't have the _________________ of cellsfirst-degree burn-only the epidermis is affected -redness and pain present -no blistering or swelling -pain subsides in 48-72 hours -no permanent damagesecond-degree burns-extends through the dermis and into the dermis -redness, pain, and blistering -generally heal with little to no scarring in 10-14 days -deeper burns heal slower (30-105 days) and can scarthird-degree burn-destroys the entire thickness of skin -commonly called full thickness burns -surface of skin is leathery and may be brown, black, white, or red -no pain is felt due to the total destruction of pain receptors, glands, blood vessels and hair folliclesburn rating of bodyepidermisstratum corneumwhat is astratum basalewhat is gdermishypodermissebaceous glandsendocrine sweat glandhairhair shafthair folliclearrector pili musclepacinian corpusclescutaneous muscular plexusthe blue and red tubesadipose tissueyellow blobs at the bottomathletes foota common infection caused by a function that usually affects the space between the toes and causes itching, burning, and cracked, scaly skintreatment of athletes foottopical anti fungal cream or sprayboilspainful, pus-filled bumps under the skin that happen when hair follicles are infected by bacteria and get inflamedcarbunclesa cluster the thing above that form from a connected area, causing deeper and more severe infection and could scartreatment of boils and carbunclesclear up on their own, if severe may require surgery and antibioticscold sores-caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 -inside the mouth, on or around lips -can be from lack of sleeptreatment of cold soresno cure, they will generally clear up on their own, over the counter cream for paincontact dermatitisa condition where the skin becomes red, sore, or inflamed after direct contact with a substance or friction (acids, soaps, chemicals)treatment of contact dermatitisremove allergen, wash skin, antihistamine (Benadryl)impetigocommon skin infection caused by streptococcus (strep) or staphylococcus (staph) bacteria causing inflammation and infectionstreatment of impetigokeep covered, treat with antibioticspsoriasiscondition that causes skin redness, silvery scales, and irritation that came from bacteria, viruses, dry air or skin, injury, or medicinetreatment of psoriasistopical steroid cream typical, sometimes immunosuppressantsbasal cell carcinomamost common type of skin cancer due to no sunscreen or protection or tanning equipment (UV light) -can scar and get biggersquamous cell carcinomacancer of the squamous cells caused by UV light and can affect nerves, blood vessels -cell piles cause tumors -not healingtreatment of basal cell carcinomasurgery in most casestreatment of squamous cell carcinomasurgery or radiation therapymelanomacancer that can spread to other parts caused by malignant melanocytestreatment of melanomaearly detection, surgery, immunotherapy