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What is Normandy?

region of land which consisted of part of western France across the English Channel; it was ruled by the Viking or Norsemen

Who was William the Conqueror?

a descendant of the Vikings and also the cousin of King Edward of England. He defeated King Harold Godwinson and became King of England

What is a grand jury?

jury that decides whether people should be accused of a crime

What is a trial jury?

a jury that decides whether an accused person was innocent or guilty

Who was Philip II?

the king of France who went to war against England and captured much of their territory. As a result, France gained more land and became more powerful

Who was Ivan III?

helped Russia become a great empire; he built up the Kremlin in Moscow; ended Mongol rule over Moscow's territory;

Who started calling themselves a czar?

Ivan III or Ivan the Great

Who was Henry II?

he increased the power of the English king; he used the courts to increase his power; he established common law

What is common law?

law that is the same throughout the whole kingdom

What is Kiev?

a Russian state that was really a group of small territories; created by a Viking leader named Oleg

Where is Moscow?

located at the crossroads of several important trade routes.

Who was King John?

raised taxes in England and punished his enemies without trials; he created the Magna Carta which was a document of rights; he introduced Habeas corpus which protected a person from being in prison forever without a trial

Who was Saladin?

a Muslim who became ruler of Egypt and captured Jerusalem; declared war against the Christians

What are clergy?

people who had been ordained as priests

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