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Terms in this set (822)
Biopsychosocial approach to health and illness
Illness is determined by a variety of influences, rather than a single cause. The causes and effects of illness can be examined at multiple levels in the life of an individual, and no single level provides the whole picture. Collecting info about psychosocial context is key to the understanding of physical health and illness.
Biomedical approach to health and illness
Disease is studied by examining only the biological factors of illness, neglecting contributing factors of psychological life and sociological context.
Provide an approximation (physical/conceptual representation) of a scientific phenomenon that cannot be observed directly
Provides the conceptual framework for understanding objects of study
Human actors actively construct their "reality", rather than discovering a reality that has inherent validity, through their social interactions. The beliefs and shared understandings of individuals create social realities.
In the context of illness, there is a gap b/t the biological reality of a medical condition and the societally created meaning of the condition. (ex. changing conceptualizations of mental illness results in changes to the DSM). It is a dynamic, ongoing process.
Brute facts vs Institutional Facts
-Part of WEAK social constructionism
-Brute facts are physical realities that exist outside of human input
-Institutional facts only exist as a function of society's structures and beliefs
Micro social perspective. Focuses on the smaller scale interactions between individuals in small groups. Through social interactions, individuals develop shared meanings and labels for various symbols. Allows for human agency in creating and changing meaning in society, rather than society acting upon the individual. Meaning can change with a single interaction, so addresses subjective meanings. Humans ascribe meaning to things, act based on those meanings, use language to generate meaning through social interaction, and modify meanings through thought processes. However, ignores larger societal forces that shape people's lives.
Terms, concepts, or items that represent specific meanings by accepted convention. Meanings ascribed to symbols are determined by social norms and cultural values.
Founder: Emile Durkheim
-Factions of society work together to maintain stability. Society is a system that consists of different components working together, with distinct institutions that contribute to functioning. Seeks to understand what different structures in society contribute to society at large. When disruptions occur, the interacting systems respond to get back to a stable state. Explains societal stability but NOT societal change (assumes stability is the ideal)
Founder: Karl Marx
Views society in terms of competing groups that act according to their own self-interests, rather than according to the need for societal equilibrium. Society is a competition for limited resources. Explains societal changes but NOT societal societal stability (assumes stability is undesirable to societal groups that are oppressed) Views human actions in terms of larger forces of inequality, but leaves motivations choices of individuals unexamined. Ignores the non-forceful ways in which people reach agreement, and approaches society more from those who lack power. Tends to be too economically focused.
All of the beliefs, assumptions, objects, behaviors, and processes that make up a shared way of life. Has a pervasive effect on worldview.
The discomfort and ensuring reevaluation of personal cultural assumptions when an individual experiences a culture different from her own
Objects involved in a certain way of life
Encompasses the elements of cultures that are not physical. Includes shared ideas, knowledge, assumptions, values, and beliefs that unify a group of people.
Expectations that govern what behavior is acceptable within a group. Social interactions help define a culture by establishing these
A subset of a population that maintains social interactions. Alternatively, includes a collection of shared experiences that create a group identity among a set of individuals
Non-material culture that consists of the elements of culture that only have meaning in the mind. Based on a shared system of collective beliefs in the form of symbols. Includes the meanings ascribed to rituals, gestures, and objects.
The use of symbols to represent ideas
Two or more individuals living together in a definable area and/or sharing elements of a culture. A society can encompass multiple cultures.
Stable hierarchical systems that bring order to interpersonal interactions, structuring society. Examples are government/economy, education, religion, family, and health/medicine. Provide predictability and organization for individuals within a society, and mediate social behavior between people.
Government/economy as a social institution
Provides order to a society through the services it provides and the making and enforcement of law
Education as a social institution
Provides a formal structure during childhood and the transition to adulthood, and an opportunity to instruct youth on social norms, expectations for behavior, knowledge, and skills needed to operate within society. Its manifest function is to systematically pass down knowledge and give status to those who have been educated. Its latent function is socialization, serving as agents of change, and maintaining social control. Serves to reinforce and perpetuate social inequalities. Experience educational segregation because of differential funding of schools based on residential segregation.
Religion as a social institution
Acts as an organized structure of behaviors and social interactions that addresses the spiritual needs of society. From a functionalist standpoint, can create social cohesion/dissent, social change/control, and provide believers with meaning and purpose.
A system of beliefs that affects how people make sense of their experiences and provides a framework for questions about life, death, and the purpose of existence
Family as a social institution
Creates a social group in which to procreate, rear children, pass on cultural knowledge, and cooperate to better meet life's challenge
The nuclear family
The concept of family in which one man and one woman live together with their children; most common concept of family in the US. Consists of DIRECT blood relations.
An individual married to more than one individual
More than one man married to one woman
Health/medicine as a social institution
Fulfills the need for healthcare in an organized manner, with beliefs about diseases and approaches to healing varying between societies and cultures
Statistics used to examine the nature of a specific population by quantifying subsets of that population. They are a statistical snapshot in time, and do not capture the ever-changing nature of society.
Quantified demographic parameters include:
Age, gender, nationality, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, SES, immigration status, education level
A demographic change that takes place over time
The production of offspring within a population
Following a subset of a population over a lifetime
Examining the number of offspring produced during a specific time period
The death rate within a population.
The relocation of people from one place to another; influences population size
The influx of new people to a specific area; increases population size
The outflow of people to other areas; reduces population size
Group of people who share an ideology and work together toward a specific set of goals
Increase in the proportion of people living in specified urban areas, due to industrialization
Increasing amount of interaction and integration on the international scale through exchange of products, services, ideas and information
The unequal distribution of opportunities or treatment of individuals within a society based on various demographic categories
Unequal access to resources and variable quantity of life within a population or geographical distribution. Can be affected by income, unemployment, and unequal access to resources. Influences health by affecting access to healthcare
The equal treatment of all people regardless of race, gender, or other social grouping with regard to prevention and relief from environmental and health hazards
Instance of social inequality on the local scale, where demographic groups are separated into different locations with unequal access to resources
Areas where it is difficult to find affordable, healthy food options. More common in highly populated low-income urban neighborhoods where there are fewer grocery stores/transportation options to seek out other food choices. Contribute to obesity in these areas bc people resort to buying cheap, highly caloric foods
System of stratification that groups members of society according to similarities in social standing. Multifaceted, and tied to status within a community and power
Influence over a community
People in higher social class tend to have more:
Power, Privilege, and Prestige
Socioeconomic status (SES)
Defines the economic and social position of a person in terms of income, wealth, education, and occupation
Income vs wealth
Income is assets EARNED while wealth is assets already OWNED.
the relative value assigned to something within a particular society
Jobs that are professional, administrative, or managerial in nature; defines the middle class
Occupations that require skilled or unskilled manual labor
Hierarchy of society is strictly defined, position is inherited, and movement or marriage between castes is prohibited
The movement of an individual up the class hierarchy. Achieved through education, marriage, career, or financial success
The movement of an individual down the class hierarchy. Due to unemployment, underemployment, reduced household income, lack of education, or health issues
Movement of a young person from a lower social class to a higher social class through merit (achieving the "American dream")
Movement through the class system between generations (old generation is poor/rich, sets up environment for new generation to become rich/poor)
Society in which advancement is based solely on the abilities and achievements of the individual
The set of non-monetary social factors that contribute to social mobility. Examples include dress, accent, vernacular, manners, education, cultural knowledge, intellectual pursits
An individual's social networks and connects that may confer economic or personal benefits
Transmission of social inequality from one generation to the next
an insufficiency of material goods, monetary wealth, and access to resources
Also known as social exclusion. Describes how impoverished people are often excluded from opportunities available to others.
Lack of essential resources (food, shelter, clothing, hygiene). More extreme form of poverty
Social inequality in which people are relatively poor compared to other members of society in which they live
Aka health inequity. Differences in health and healthcare that occur between groups of people
The study of how individuals interact with, shape, and are subsequently shaped by the society in which they live. Attempts to understand the behavior of GROUPS.
-Father of sociology, pioneer of modern social research and established the field as separate and distinct from psychology and politics
-Major proponent of functionalism
-Argued that modern society was more complex than primitive societies because they were all similar, shared a common language. Even when people were dissimilar, they relied on each other to make society function.
Aspect of functionalism. Complex societies contain many different but interdependent parts working together to maintain stability. Unhealthy cites are unable to maintain this.
The elements that serve some function in society, such as the laws, morals, values, religions, customs, rituals, and rules that make up a society.
Intended and obvious consequences of a social structure
Unintended or less recognizable consequence of a social structure. Can be considered beneficial, neutral, or harmful
Social process that has undesirable consequences, reducing the stability of society
Father of sociology. Associated with Conflict Theory. Looked at the economic conflict between different social classes, and argued that societies progress through class struggle between those who own and control production and those who labor and provide the manpower for production. Believed that capitalism would ultimately lead to self-destruction of society due to internal tensions.
Proposed that society is shaped by war and conquest, and that cultural and ethnic conflicts lead to certain groups becoming dominant over other groups.
Father of sociology. Argued that in a capitalist society inequalities would lead to conflict, but that there would be more than one source of conflict. Argued that there were several factors that moderated people's reaction to inequality.
Assumes that people are theatrical performers and that everyday life is a stage, where people choose what kind of image they want to communicate verbal and nonverbally to others. Critics say this research may not be objective, ad that theory is focused too narrowly on symbolic interaction.
A concept or practice that is construct of a group. Everybody in society agrees to treat a certain aspect a certain way regardless of its inherent value in nature.
A set of people related by blood, marriage, adoption, or some other agreed-upon relationship that signifies some responsibility to each other. Serves five functions:
-Reproduction and the monitoring of sexual behavior
-Affection and companionship
The process by which people learn customs and values of their culture. It is the way that children learn the culture into which they have been born
A man married to more than one woman
The practice of marrying within a particular group
A requirement to marry outside a particular group, with it being the norm in almost all cultures to prohibit sexual relationships between certain relatives
Parents provide children with possible mates, out of which the child can choose
How we think about who we are related to. Considered a cultural group rather than biological
Kin groups that involve both maternal and paternal relations
Preference for paternal relations in the kin group
Preference for maternal relations in the kin group
Spouses are treated as equals and may be involved in negotiation when making decisions
Social class in America is largely determined by ________.
Upper vs lower class families
Upper class families have concerns related to continuing a larger family tradition and properly training children, while lower class families are focused on completing the everyday tasks necessary for survival. Upper class parents are more permissive/authoritative, while lower class parents are more authoritarian.
Divorce rate in America
Has generally increased due to social and religious acceptance, more opportunities for women's autonomy, and lessened financial and legal barriers
A dominant religious organization that includes most members of society, is recognized as the national or official religion, and tolerates no other religions
A type of religious organization that is well-integrated into the large society. Membership teds to occur by birth, but most churches allow people to join. Can be tied to the state or independent of it.
A religious organization that is distinct from that of the larger society. Formed from breaking away from larger religious institutions. Membership may be by birth or through conversion.
Cult/New religious movement
A religious organization that is far outside society's norms and often involves a very different lifestyle. Many major world religions originated as cults.
The extent of influence of religion in a person's life
Individuals who adhere strictly to religious beliefs
Legal rules and regulations are stipulated in a document. How the United States government operates
Power due to custom, tradition, or accepted practice
Power due to persuasion (eg. MLK)
An economic system in which resources and production are mainly privately owned, and goods/services are produced for a profit. Driving force in society is the pursuit of personal profit. Emphasizes personal freedom by limiting government restrictions and regulations
An economic system where resources and production are collectively owned. System of production and distributed designed to satisfy human needs, with goods/services produced for direct use instead of profit.
System where most of the economy is private with the exception of extensive social welfare programs to serve certain needs within society.
System in which companies are privately run, but work closely with the government in forming laws and regulations
Highly-esteemed white collar occupations that require a great deal of education
People understand the world through language and language shapes how we experience the world
Patterns/traits that are common to all people. Tend to pertain to basic human survival and needs (eg. securing food and shelter)
a culture's standard for evaluating what is good and bad
Convictions or principles that people hold in a culture
The study of how biology and evolution have affected human behavior. Applies Darwin's theory of natural selection to social behavior, suggesting there is a biological basis for many behaviors. Additionally, argues that biological predisposition is influenced by social factors, and that the origins of culture lie in human evolution.
People under 20 make up approximately ________ of the US population.
The biological, anthropological, or genetic origin of an individual
Socially defined concept referring to whether or not people identify with each other based on shared social experience or ancestry
The potential reproductive capacity of a female
Crude birth rate
Annual number of live births per 1000 people
General fertility rate
The annual number of live births per 1000 women of childbearing age
Replacement level fertility
The number of children that a woman/couple must have in order to replace the number of people in the population who die
The number of years that an individual at a given age can expect to live at present mortality rates
The way that people are categorized in society
Considers both social variables and individual initiative in social stratification
Socioeconomic status (SES) can be defined in terms of:
power, property, and prestige
Certain countries hold a majority of the resources. Access to resources among countries seriously impacts social factors such as mortality. The burden of inequality is placed on certain segments of the population.
Women and men receive different treatment for the same disease or illness. In healthcare, often due to research being conducted only on male subjects
Large scale perspective, looking at big phenomena that affect big portion of population. Social structures and institutions, whole civilizations/populations. Looking for patterns and effects the big picture has on lives on small groups. Broad social trends in cities and statistical data. Deals with matters like poverty, war, health care, world economy
Face to face interactions, families, schools, other social interactions. Interpretive analysis of society, looking at sample of society and how individual interactions would affect larger groups in society
Weakening of social and political power of religious organizations, as religious involvement declines
Reaction to secularization, by going back to strict religious beliefs. Creates social problems when people become too extreme.
Government embodied by single person, king/queen is the figurehead
Classless, moneyless community where all property is owned by community
Human conditions previously considered normal get defined as medical conditions, and are subject to studies, diagnosis, and treatment.
Expectation in society that allows you to take a break from responsibilities . However, if you don't get better or return you are viewed as deviant
Process of being ill and how people cope with illness. Can change a person's self identity
The beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests.
The self as a social construct
Our identity is created by interactions with other people, and our reactions to the other people
STRONG social constructionism
The whole of reality is dependent on language and social habits. All knowledge is social construct and no brute facts. There are no facts that just exist.
George Herbert Mead
Developed Symbolic Interactionism. Believed development of individual was a social process as were the meanings individuals assigned to things
Contemporary approach of looking at work from macro perspective, focusing on stratifications/inequalities in society, particularly women's social roles in education, family, and workforce. Women face DISCRIMINATION, OBJECTIFICATION, OPPRESSION, AND STEREOTYPING. NOT an attempt to replace men.
Expectations for gender are passed down from generation to generation.
Central to all behavior. Women subordination is viewed as an inherent feature in our patriarchal society.
Women are not only unequal as men, but they're oppressed and abused.
Structural oppression of women
Women's oppression and inequality are due to capitalism, patriarchy and racism. Women are exploited because of capitalism model, but not all women express oppression in the same way. Men are associated with the mind, while women are associated with the body.
Rational choices Theory
Every action people do is fundamentally rational. A person acts as if they are weighing costs and benefits of each action. People act in self-interest, driven by personal desires and goals.
3 Main Assumptions of Rational Choice Theory
-Completeness (every action can be ranked)
-Transitivity (Since A is preferable to B, A is also preferable to C)
-Independence of irrelevant alternatives (if I have a 4th option, it won't change order of how I ranked first 3 options)
Application of rational choice theory to social interactions. Looks at society as series of interactions between individuals. Used to study family relationships, partner selection, parenting, etc. Interactions are determined by weighing rewards and punishments of each action.
Natural selection arising through preference for one sex for characteristics in individuals of the other sex
Idea that an individual's health can influence their social mobility. Social conditions can affect reproductive rates of individual in a population
Life Course theory
Aging is a social, psychological, and biological process that begins from the time you are born until you die.
Age stratified theory
Age is a way of regulating behavior of a generation
Looks at how older generation looks at themselves. Lost social interactions (work, certain activities) need to be replaced so elderly can be engaged
Older adults and society separate, assume that they become more self-absorbed as they age. Considers elderly people still involved in society as not adjusting well
People try to maintain same basic structure throughout their lives. As they age, they make decision to adapt to external changes and internal changes of aging
Encourages racial/ethnic variation
5 Considerations of Gender
-Biological--> XX vs XY
-Identity --> What gender they identify
-Expression--> What gender they express
-Attraction--> Not dependent on gender of a person (is not limited to sexual attraction, can be romantic)
-Fornication --> sexual attraction
Cognitions that constitute the gender identity
Gender-specific organized information regarding order of actions appropriate to familiar situations
Revamping old parts of cities to become better. Can lead to gentrification.
People getting sick of cities and moving back to rural areas
World Systems Theory
Importance of world as a unit, dividing world into CORE (Western Europe/US), PERIPHERY (Latin America, Africa), and SEMI-PERIPHERY (India, Brazil)
Periphery countries export resources to core countries, and don't have means to develop
Sees it as a new age in human history: countries become interdependent and nation-states themselves are less important
Third world countries aren't being integrated into global economy with same benefits
National governments are changing, with world order (new world order) forming
Mass society theory
Groups only form for people seeking refuge from main society (ex. Nazism)
Relative Deprivation Theory
Actions of groups that are oppressed/deprived of rights that others in society enjoy. ex. Civil Rights Movements
Resource Mobilization Theory
Focus on factors that help/hinder a social movement like access to resources
Culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, resulting in social problems
Spread of an invention or discovery from one place to another
Mass Media as viewed by functionalism and conflict theory
Functionalist: provides entertainment
Conflict: portrays divisions that exist in society
The process by which a small number of people/corporations control what info is presented to the media
The study of external observable behaviors (as opposed to internal motivaitons/thoughts)
AKA conditioning. Refers to learning that involves associations between certain stimuli and specific responses
An individual develops a response to a previously neutral stimulus by associating the stimulus with another the already elicits the response. Think: STIMULI ---> BEHAVIOR. Discovered by Ivan Pavlov and his dogs.
A stimulus that results in an innate behavioral response (a response that is not learned)
A behavioral response that is innate (not learned)
A stimulus that does not elicit a behavioral response. Can eventually become conditioned response if presented immediately before unconditioned stimuli.
A stimulus that has been associated with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits a learned response
A response that is learned (elicited through a conditioned stimulus). Is similar to the original unconditioned response that is used to create a conditioned stimulus
The stage of learning over which a conditioned response to a new stimulus is established
The reappearance of a conditioned response after a period of lessened response
Disappearance of a conditioned response through disassociation of the conditioned and unconditioned response
The tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus
The learned lack of response to a stimulus similar to a conditioned stimulus
An individual becomes more or less likely to carry out a certain behavior based on its consequences. Think: BEHAVIOR ---> RESPONSE. Discovered by B.F Skinner.
Operant conditioning chamber for animals, where food is dispensed to animals only after carrying out a specific behavior. Sometimes included areas of electrical shock, used for animals to learn to avoid.
In operant conditioning, a consequence of a behavior that increases the likelihood of a behavior
In operant conditioning, a consequence of a behavior that decreases the likelihood of a behavior
Introduction of a reinforcing stimulus in response to a desired behavior. AKA adds a stimulus to increase likelihood of behavior
Removal of an unpleasant stimulus in response to a desired behavior. AKA takes away stimulus to increase likelihood of behavior
Introduction of a punishing stimulus in response to an undesired behavior. AKA adds stimulus to reduce likelihood of behavior
Removal of a desired stimulus in response to an undesired behavior. AKA removes stimulus to reduce likelihood of behavior
A reinforcing stimulus that is based on a physiological need (ex. food, water, shelter). Harness physiological needs and the drive for survival.
AKA conditioned reinforcers. Require learning and social context to affect behavioral decisions, but are just as effective at controlling behavior as primary reinforcers. Include money, praise, prestige, and good grades.
A punishing stimulus that is based on a physiological need (eg. exposure to extreme temperature). Harness physiological needs and the drive for survival.
A punishing stimulus that requires learning and social context to affect behavioral decisions, but is just as effective at controlling behavior as primary punishers. Includes fines, scolding, ostracism, and bad grades.
Avoidance of unpleasant stimuli by learning new behaviors to help terminate the occurring unpleasant stimuli.
Avoidance of unpleasant stimuli by learning new behaviors to help avoid the unpleasant stimuli before it occurs.
Disappearance of a behavior through removal of reinforcers (ex. if a dog learns to sit down in order to receive a treat, and treats are no longer given, the "sit down" behavior will eventually disappear)
Describes how often and under what conditions a behavior is reinforced
AKA intermittent reinforcement. Reinforcement of a behavior by delivering a response only part of the time. Four types: Fixed-ratio, Variable-ratio, Fixed-interval, and Variable-interval
A form of partial reinforcement where rewards are provided after a specified # of responses
A form of partial reinforcement where rewards are provided after an unpredictable number of responses
A form of partial reinforcement where rewards are provided after a specific time interval has passed after a response
A form of partial reinforcement where rewards are provided after an unpredictable time interval has passed since the response
What is the most rapid way to establish a learned response?
What is the most sustainable way to establish a learned response?
A type of operant conditioning where successive approximations of a desired behavior are reinforced in order to gradually achieve the desired behavior
Behaviors that are developmentally fixed (cannot be modified through experience)
What is required for associative learning of non-instinctual behaviors?
Appropriate cognitive processes (higher level brain function)
Witnessing another person's actions, retaining info on that person's behavior, and later re-enacting what was learned
Learning through observation (and imitation) of others' behaviors. Very important in childhood.
What is necessary for an individual to be capable of observational learning?
Biological processes (mirror neurons)
Specialized nerve cells which fire both when a person is completing an action and when the person observes someone else completing the same action. Critical for observational learning (learning by imitation), and responsible for vicarious emotions
Feeling the emotions of others as though they are one's own, in order to learn from the successes and mistakes of others through observation
the sum coordinated responses of organisms to the internal and external stimuli that they experience
All communication between individuals that does not involve words (eg. body language, touch, appearance, facia l expressions)
Nonverbal methods to communication such as vocalizations, visual stimuli, touch, and smell
All interactions taking place between members of the same species
Factors that draw members of a species together. A social behavior
Conflict and competition between individuals. A social behavior
Forming relationships between individuals. A social behavior
Finding help through social connections. A social behavior
Set of behaviors through which animals obtain food. A social behavior. Animals optimize this to maximize the energy available through food and to minimize the energy expenditure involved in obtaining it.
Behavior surrounding propagation of a species through reproduction. Natural selection plays a role in this.
Determined by a number of factors, including genetic qualities, overall health, and potential parenting skills of prospective mates
Behavior that is disadvantageous to the individual, but confers benefits to other members of its social group. Appears to have no evolutionary benefit, but in actually improves inclusive fitnesses
Overall fitness, considering both individual's own progeny as well as the offspring of its close relatives. Can increase it with altruism
Use of mathematical models to represent complex decision making in which the actions of other group members must be taken into account. Success of an individual in the "multiplayer game" depends not only on his or her own strategy but also on the strategies and decisions of the other "players". The most successful strategies result in greater fitness and will be favored by natural selection
How an individual is perceived
The process of consciously making behavioral choices in order to create a specific impression in the minds of others
Front stage self
Component of the dramaturgical approach. Encompasses the behavior that a player performs in front of an audience. The player know they are being watched and that their behavior is subject to judgment by an audience
Back stage self
Component of the dramaturgical approach. Encompasses the behavior that a player performs when with other players, but no audience is present. Can include behavior that would be unacceptable when performed in front of the audience.
The phenomenon where a group's members tend to think alike and agree for the sake of group harmony. May cause individuals to self-censor ideas and opinions that go against group norms, or may be pressured by other group members to keep silent on these opinions.
Through the interactions and discussions of a group, the attitude of the group as a whole toward a particular issue becomes stronger than the attitudes of its individual members
The social influence exerted by one's peers to act in a way that is acceptable or similar to their own behaviors
Is conformity necessary for a society to function smoothly?
The tendency to perform better when a person knows he is being watched. Usually most pronounced for tasks at which the performer is highly practiced or skilled
Diffusion of responsibility
Responsible for bystander effect. People in a large, anonymous crowd are less likely to feel accountable for the outcome of a situation or to feel responsibility to take action
Onlookers in a crowd fail to offer assistance to a person who is in trouble because they assume someone else will help. Willingness to help is inversely proportional to # of people present
Members a group decrease the pace or intensity of their own work with the intention of letting other group members work harder
Occurs when people lose awareness of their individuality and instead immerse themselves in the mood or activities of a crowd
Agents of socialization
Consist of the groups and people who influence personal attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Include family, friends, neighbors, social institutions, consumption of mass media, and environments
The tendency of individuals to CHANGE their attitudes, opinions, and behaviors to align with group norms. Necessary for the smooth functioning of social communities
Describes behavioral changes made in response to a command by an authority figure
Behavior that violates social expectations or fails to conform to social norms
A negative social label that changes a person's social identity by classifying the labeled person as abnormal/tainted
The process by which an individual or group becomes part of a new culture. Can occur through a variety of means (language acquisition, gaining knowledge of social norms)
A culture that is shared by a smaller group of people who are also part of a larger culture but have specific cultural attributes that set them apart from the larger group
The practice of valuing and respecting differences in culture. Believes that the harmonious coexistence of separate cultures is a valuable goal, rather than encouraging all cultures to blend together through assimilation
The belief that one's group is of central importance. Includes the tendency to judge the practices by other groups by one's own cultural standards
The practice of trying to understand a culture on its own terms, and to judge a culture by its own standards rather than by one's own standards
A group with which an individual shares identity and toward which she feels loyalty
A group with which an individual does not identify and toward which she may feel competition or hostility
The thoughts, attitudes, and feelings someone holds about a group that are not based on actual experience. Power, prestige, and class can contribute to the effect that it has on the lives and opportunities of individuals as well as the structure of social institutions. Think: PREJUDGment about a group.
Attributing a certain thought/cognition to a group of individuals and overgeneralizing
The anxiety and resulting impaired performance that a person may experience when confronted with negative stereotype about a group to which he belongs or when he feels his performance may confirm a negative stereotype about his group. Can cause stereotypes to become self-fulfilling prophecies
The stress and lowered expectations regarding a situation contribute to making beliefs into reality
Unfair treatment of others base don their membership in a specific social group. Its effects are mediated by factors such as power, prestige, and class. THINK: it is an ACTION
Occurs when one person behaves negatively toward another because of that person's membership in a specific social group or category
Social institutions employ policies that differentiate people based on social grouping
Non associative learning
Occurs when an organism is repeatedly exposed to one type of stimulus
An action that is performed repeatedly until it becomes automatic
A decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations
Results when a repeated stimulus is removed
An increase in the responsiveness to a stimulus due to either repeated application of a stimulus or a particularly aversive/noxious stimulus
Curve of Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery in Classical Conditioning
Describes when previously learned behaviors are suddenly combined in unique ways.
Describes the manifestation of previously unseen behavior. Somethings s learned by not expressed as can observable behavior until it is required
Pioneer in the field of observational learning. Demonstrated the learning of aggressive behaviors in children after watching violent videos
Individuals who were not raised with human contact or care
Rewards and punishments for behaviors that are in accord with or against norms
Written down rules that are precisely defined, publicly presented, and often accompanied by strict penalties for those who violate them
Generally understood but are less precise and often carry no specific punishments
Norms that are highly important for the benefit of society and so are often strictly enforced
Norms that are less important but shape everyday behavior
Occurs when majority and minority groups combine to form a new group
Policies that take factors like race or sex into consideration to benefit underrepresented groups in admissions or job hiring decisions. It is an attempt to limit discrimination, but has been accused of perpetuating reverse discrimination
Discrimination against the majority. Used to describe the negative consequences of affirmative action
Prejudices and actions that discriminate based on race, or hold that one race is inferior to another
People who exists in the same space but do not interact or share a common sense of identity
Play a more important role in an individual's life; usually smaller and include those with whom the individual engages with in person, in long-term emotional ways. Serve EXPRESSIVE functions
Larger, more impersonal groups that may interact for specific reasons for shorter periods of time. Serve INSTRUMENTAL functions
A standard measure that people compare themselves to
People are simply in each other's presence, either completing similar activities or apparently minding their own business
Two reasons why group polarization occurs
1) Informational influence
2) Normative influence
In group discussion, the most common ideas to emerge are the ones that favor the dominant viewpoint. Looking to group for guidance when you don't know what to do and you assume the group is correct
In group discussion, taking a stronger stance than you initially would have in order to better relate with and internalize the group's belief system. Even if you know what's right, do group's actions to avoid social rejection
Evaluating our opinions by comparing them to those of others. Facilitates the development of a distinct self of self in terms of similarity/difference from other people
Some members of the group prevent dissenting opinions from permeating the group by filtering out information and facts that go against the beliefs of the group
Three ways that behavior may be motivated by social influence
Factors that influence conformity
1) Group size (the larger, the better)
6) No prior commitment
Status that dominates the others and determines the individual's general position in society
A status that is assigned to a person by society regardless of the person's own efforts (ex. gender, race)
A status that is earned by a person due to the person's individual efforts
Happens when there is a conflict in society's expectations for multiple statuses held by the same person
A single status results in conflicting expectations
Disengaging from a role that that has become closely tied to one's self-identity to take on another
Organization where members get paid for their efforts (ex. businesses)
Organizations motivated based on morally relevant goals (ex. MADD)
Organizations where members do not have a choice in joining (ex. prisons)
Strategy in which people create obstacles and excuses to avoid self-blame when they do poorly
Bright colors meant to advertise to predators that an organism is toxic or noxious
Chemical messengers employed by animals to communicate with each other
Mere exposure effect
People prefer repeated exposure to the same stimuli (aka familiarity breeds fondness)
When someone is blocked from achieving a goal, the frustration can trigger anger, leading to aggression
Learning a behavior and performing it are 2 different things
Changing internal behaviors/opinions to align with the group
Outwardly changing behaviors to align with group, but maintaining inner core beliefs
Individuals tend to value new info that support a belief they already hold, while disregarding info that goes against preconceived notions. In groups, group members seek out information that support the majority view
Breakdown of social bonds between an individual and community- society doesn't have the support of a firm collective consciousness. Can be resolved by strengthening social norms and redeveloping group's set of shared norms.
Situations where we do behavior to get a reward or avoid punishment. Aka going along with behavior without questioning why. Goes away when rewards/punishments removed
When people act/dress a certain way to be like someone they respect. Will do this as long as they maintain respect for that individual
Idea/belief/behavior that has be been integrated into our own values. We conform to the belief privately. Stronger than other types of conformity
Actors that are told what to do during an experiment
Normative social influence
If we do something to gain respect/support of our peers, we're complying with social norms
Informational social influence
When we conform because we feel others are more knowledgable than us, because we think they know something we don't
Just world phenomenon
Idea that the universe is fair so people must get what they deserve (Good things happen to good people, and vice versa)
Presence of others improves performance on simple tasks, and hinders it on difficult tasks. AKA people perform best when they are moderately aroused
Group produced reduction of individual effort is a result of _____________.
Individuals modify or improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed
Norms are reinforced by _________.
Theory of Differential Association
Deviance is a learned behavior that results from continuous exposure to others whom violate norms and laws
A behavior is deviant if people have judged the behavior and labelled it as deviant
Primary versus secondary deviance
Primary: no big consequences
Secondary: more serious consequences
If a person is blocked from attaining a culturally accepted goal, they may become frustrated/strained and turn to deviance
-Happens when large numbers of individuals rapidly behave in ways that are not in line with societal norms
-Involves short social interactions
-Have loose norms
Fleeting behavior that occurs when something becomes incredibly popular very quickly but loses popularity just as quickly
Large # of people who experience unmanageable delusions and anxiety at same time
characterized by large # of people who engage in dangerous behavior, such as vandalism, violence, or other crimes
When an individual no longer receives regular reinforcement, its original behavior will sometimes spike (increase dramatically)
Teaching an individual to replace feelings of anxiety with relaxation. Works great with phobias
System of behavior modification based on systematic reinforcement of target behavior. Reinforcers are "tokens" that can be exchanged for other reinforcers
The phenomenon whereby established habits learned using operant techniques, eventually are replaced by innate food-related behaviors
School curricula transmits cultural ideals beyond the stated goal of the institution. Encompasses the unspoken aims of education (teaching children to conform to social expectations)
Teachers treat students differently according to preconceived ideas about their capabilities. Influences students' achievements
Separation of students into groups on the basis of academic achievement
Three types of kinship
Bloodline, marriage, adoption
Racial formation theory
Race is a social construct, with no basis in actual genetic differences
Starvation is the inevitable result of population growth, because the population increases at a geometric rate while food supply can only increase arithmetically
Demographic transition theory
Links population growth to the society's use of technology, describing sequential stages of change in birth and death rates. AKA tech is what keeps population size in check
Predict changes in populations by examining current data
Graphs a population's sex and age cohorts
General plan describing the goals of a movement
Describe how the movement implements a strategy
Factor in globalization where corporations often conduct operations across multiple continents
Direct form of socialization in which one group or individual imposes a set of rules to control the behavior of others
Iron law of oligarchy
Criticizes the hierarchal nature of bureaucracy ,stating that people at the top of the hierarchy will inevitably come to value their power over the purpose of the orgnanization
Chains are predicable, uniform, efficient and automated; however, homogeny of the organization leads to loss of originality/creativity
The characteristics that make a person different from others and may be predictive of behaviors. Considered the individual pattern of thinking, feeling, and behavior associated with each person.
Trait theory of personality
Personality consists of a set of traits which are characteristics that vary between people and are STABLE over the course of the lifetime. Key: NO ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES. Very little personal control over personality, and personality is hereditable.
Big 5 Model of Traits
Openness to experience
High neuroticism corresponds to:
High levels of emotional instability, anxiety, and moodiness
Biological theory of personality
A person's genome contributes to the formation of personality, and that personality traits differ in the event to which they are influenced by heredity versus environmental factors
Innate, genetically influenced baseline of personality that includes the infant's tendency towards certain patterns of emotions and social interaction
Tease out the effects of the genetic and environmental influences of a trait, by determining the degree to which genetic inheritance influences it
Have virtually identical genomes
Have genomes that are no more similar than any other biological sibling
Gene associated with certain psychological traits that improve an individual;s chances for successful reproduction tend to be conserved
Psychoanalytic theory of personality
Founded by Sigmund Freud. Personality is determined by a person's unconscious- the flow of psychic energy between three systems in the stream of consciousness (id, ego, and superego). Development of personality takes place according to a process of conflict between components of the SoC. CRUCIAL: Personality processes take place outside of conscious awareness.
Behaviorist theory of personality
Personality is constructed by a series of learning experiences that occur through interactions between the individual and their environment. Individuals have learning experiences through their lifetimes that lead to predictable behaviors (behaviors make up the personality). People are born as BLANK STATES, and environmental reinforcement/punishment determine the personality. KEY: Environment shapes personality
Social cognitive theory of personality
Considers learned experiences and observable behaviors as shaping personality, but also considers the contributions of an individual's mental life and personal choices. Posits reciprocal interaction between behavior, personal factors, and environment in shaping personality/ Includes process of observational learning. Individual have personal control over personality by choosing experiences
Humanistic theory of personality
Carl Rogers. People continually seek experiences that make them better, more fulfilled individuals- motivated by enhancing the organism. The individual shapes his or her own personality through free will. Conscious decisions make people who they are.
According to humanistic theory, when is an individual's personality healthy?
When the individual's actual self, ideal self, and perceived self (self-concept) overlap (are the same)
According to humanistic theory, what causes psychological distress in an individual?
Occurs when the actual self, ideal self, and perceived self (self concept) are different from one other
Situational approach to explaining behaviors
The concept of enduring personality traits is fatally flawed because of variations in behavior that occur across different situations. Still allows stability in personality, however, because people behavior according to their interpretations of situations.
A person's view of who they are in terms of both internal factors and social/external factors. Places a larger emphasis on the individual's own perception of self, which contrasts from a "personality".
The most personal aspect of identity. The knowledge of oneself as a person both separate from other people and constant throughout changing situations. AKA a person's view of his/her own personality. Developed and refined through interactions with others
The perception of oneself as a member of certain social groups. Characteristics that are associated with the group come to be seen as part of the self.
Cognitive component: categorization of oneself into a certain group
Emotional component: individual's emotional attachment to the groups w/ which they identify
Adopting the role of another person either by imitating behaviors associated with specific social roles or by taking the other person's POV in a social interaction
Looking glass self
Identity develops through interpersonal interactions with others in society and the perceptions of others. People shape their self-concepts based on their understanding of how others perceive them
A person's overall value judgment of himself. Acts as a mediating factor between self-concept and experience by shaping interpretations of events.
High --> positive self concept
Low --> negative self concept
The feeling of being able to carry out an action successfully
Locus of control
A person's belief about the extent to which internal or external factors play a role in shaping his/her life
Freud's Theory of development
Posits stages of development in terms of the impulses of the id (and overcoming these impulses)
Oral - 1st year- Nursing, oral stimulation-Requires development of trust and capacity of delayed gratification
Anal - 2nd year- Toilet training- Allows the development of self control
Phallic- 3-6 years- Gender and sexual identification- Allows internalization of society's rules and development of superego
Latent- 7-12 years- Social development & suppression o sexual impulses- Allows children to focus on other developmental tasks
Genital-Adolescence-Mature sexuality & return of sexual urges
A psychoanalytic concept referring to a permanent aspect of the individual's personality that is related to an unbalanced urge experienced in childhood development
Erikson's Theory of Development
Posits stages of development in terms of the interaction between self and society experienced across society, with each stage presenting a crisis that must be resolved
1st year - Trust vs mistrust (ability to trust)
2nd year: Autonomy vs shame/doubt (ability to self-care)
3-6 years: Initiative vs guilt (ability to carry out a plan)
7-12 years: Industry vs inferiority (ability to learn new tasks)
Adolescence: Identity vs role confusion (stable identity formation)
Young adulthood: Intimacy vs isolation (ability to form relationships w/ others)
Adulthood: Generativity vs stagnation (ability to put energy into others)
Maturity: Integrity vs despair (determining how well they have lived)
A person has a sense of identity but has failed to identify an identity crisis (unquestionably adopts the values and expectations of others)
Describes a person actively attempting to develop a unique set of values and an understanding of self in society
Describes a person with no sense of identity or motivation to engage in identity exploration. Associated with an external locus of control
Vygotsky's Theory of Development
Studied the role that social interaction plays in development of cognition.
Current developmental level: tasks that a child can perform w/o help from others
Zone of proximal development: range of abilities b/t current & potential developmental level. Consists of all of the skills that can be accomplished with help
Potential developmental level: The most advanced takes that a child can do with guidance from more knowledgable people
Kohlberg's Theory of Development
Key: Developing children progress through a predictable sequence of stages of moral reasoning. Levels are defined by REASONING for decision, not by what decision is made
Level 1: Pre-conventional Morality
-Based solely on consideration of anticipated consequences of behavior (reward vs punishment)
-No internalization of what's right and wrong
Stage 1: Punishment--> avoid punishment
Stage 2: Reward---> seek reward
Level II: Conventional Morality
-Acceptance of conventional definitions of what is right and wrong
-Stage 3: Social disapproval--> avoid social disapproval
-Stage 4: Rule following --> duty to obey rules established
Level III: Post-conventional morality (few people reach this stage)
-Internal ethical guidelines, with rules being useful but malleable guidelines
Stage 5: Social contract --> wants to ensure greatest good for greatest number of people
Stage 6: Universal ethics --> ensures universal justice
Conscious and unconscious processes both contribute to the formation of ideas about what caused another person to behave in a particular way
Assigning the cause of an inherent quality or desire (internal locus of control)
Deciding that environmental forces were in control (external locus of control)
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency to automatically favor dispositional attributions over situational ones when judging other people (assuming another person commits an action because of their personal qualities rather than environmental influences)
Here we are JUDGING OTHERS
Self serving bias
The tendency to attribute one's success to internal factors and one's failures to external factors. Functions to support self esteem
-Invoked by members of individualistic cultures more
Here we are JUDGING OURSELVES
Why is the problem with characterizing mental illness?
Determining what classifies ""abnormal" psychological conditions is ARBITRARY. Imposes categories on traits that exist on a continuum
The most recent edition of the guidebook for diagnosis of psychological disorders is the:
Psychological disorders characterized by bodily symptoms
Anxiety disorders manifest physically as:
Excessive sympathetic nervous system activation
The genetic contribution to depression is:
A deficiency in the availability of monoamines (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine) in the synapses contributes to depression
Interaction between the nervous and endocrine systems to produce the body's response to stress. Elevated levels of one of these hormones may lead to depression
Biological factors associated with schizophrenia
Genetics, excess dopamine activity, brain atrophy (smaller brain)
Prevalence of psychological disorders in adults
Anxiety disorders -20%
Mood disorders- 10%
Schizophrenia - 1%
Personality disorder - 9%
Dissociative disorders- 19%
Eating disorders -1-6%
Somatoform disorders- up to 2%
Anxiety is characterized by:
-The experience of unwanted fear
-A physical manifestation of excessive sympathetic nervous system activation
-The frequent experience of excessive responses to stress
-Concerns about the future and hypothetical situations
Psychoanalytic concept--> it is the life instinct that drives behaviors focused on survival, growth, creativity, pain avoidance, and pleasure
Psychoanalytic concept--> drives aggressive behaviors fueled by an unconscious wish to die or to hurt oneself/others
In psychoanalytic theory of personality, the id seeks to reduce tension, avoid pain, and gain pleasure. The id does so with no logical/moral reasoning, and does not distinguish mental images from external objects.
In psychoanalytic theory of personality, the ego uses logical thinking/planning to control consciousness and the id. Tries to find realistic ways to satisfy the id.
Seeks psychological rewards/moralistic goals to serve a higher purpose. Feelings of pride and self-love are sought by the superego, and guilt/inferiority are avoided
A defense mechanism that involves lack of recall of an emotionally painful memory
A defense mechanism that involves forceful refusal to acknowledge an emotionally painful memory
A defense mechanism that involves expressing the opposite of of what one really feels, when it would be dangerous to express the real feeling
A defense mechanism that involves attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts/feelings to another person
A defense mechanism that involves redirecting aggressive or sexual impulses from a forbidden action or object onto a less dangerous one
A defense mechanism that involves explaining and intellectually justifying one's impulse behavior
A defense mechanism that involves reverting to an earlier, less sophisticated behavior
A defense mechanism that involves channeling aggressive/sexual energy into positive, constructive activities
According to Freud, adult personality is largely determined by what three psychosexual stages?
Oral, anal, phallic
Uses various methods to help a patient become aware of his/her unconscious motives, in order to help the patient be more able to choose behaviors consciously. Therapy sessions usually focus on patients talking about their lives and reducing anxiety through self insight through analysis and interpretation.
Realizing one's human potential
Occurs when people encounter experiences in life that contradict their self-concepts. Can help a person learn what their true values are and then become healthy again by modifying their self-concept.
Provides an environment that will help clients trust and accept themselves and their emotional reactions, so they can learn and grow from their experiences. Personal growth through self-insight is the goal, achieved through active listening and unconditional positive regard
Uses conditioning to shape a client's behaviors in the desired direction. Commonly used to desensitize anxiety patients to phobias or anxiety-provoking stimuli
Cognitive behavioral therapy
A person's feelings/behaviors are seen as reactions not to actual events, but to the person's thoughts about those events. Helps the client become aware of their irrational thoughts and substitute rational/accurate beliefs and thoughts through reconditioning, desensitization, and reversal of self-blame.
Personality traits that are evident from a person's behavior
Factors underlying human personality and behavior
Trait versus state controversery
The degree to which a person's reaction in a given situation is due to their personality or due to the situation itself.
What percentage of adults in America suffer from a diagnosable psychological disorder?
A person has suffered at least one panic attack and are worried about having more of them. Can be cued by certain situations, but are more often spontaneous
Classified as a person experiences intense dread, SOB, chest pain, choking sensation, cardiac symptoms
Generalized anxiety disorder
People feel tense or anxious much of the time about many issues, but do not experience panic attacks.
A persistent, strong, and unreasonable fear of a certain object or situation
An unreasonable, paralyzing fear of feeling embarrassed or humiliated while one is watched by others
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Arises when person feels intense fear, horror, or helplessness while experiencing, witnessing, or otherwise confronting an extremely traumatic event
Acute stress disorder
PTSD symptoms that appear for a month or less
Obsessions vs compulsions
Obsessions: repeated intrusive uncontrollable thoughts/impulses that cause distress
Compulsions: repeated physical/mental behaviors that are done in RESPONSE to an obsession
Somatoform disorder where a person experiences a change in sensory/motor function that has no discernible physical or physiological cause, but seems affected by psychological factors
Somatoform disorder where a person suffers clinically important pain whose onset or severity seems significantly affected by psychological factors
Somatoform disorder where a person experiences a variety of physical symptoms over an extended period of time. The person needs to have many somatic symptoms (pain, GI stress, sexual stress, and neurological)
Body dysmorphic disorder
Somatoform disorder where a person is preoccupied with a slight physical anomaly or imagined defect in appearance
Positive symptoms of psychosis
Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized/catatonic behavior
Negative symptoms of psychosis
Reduced/absent emotional expression, reduced quantity/fluency of speech, reduced initiative or will to do things (avolition)
Types of Schizophrenia
Paranoid: psychosis involves hallucinations/delusions
Disorganized: Flat/inappropriate affect, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, negative symptoms
Catatonic: Negative symptoms predominant
Undifferentiated: Basic criteria are met, but symptoms do not fit a subtype
Residual: Acute phase has resolved, but person still appears odd and suffers some symptoms
Chronic, incapacitating disorder by which a person is out of touch with reality
A person's VISIBLE emotion in the moment
A person's sustained INTERNAL emotion that colors his/her view of life
Bipolar I vs Bipolar II
Bipolar I: Person experiences one manic/mixed episode
Bipolar II: Person experiences less extreme manic phases
Similar to bipolar disorder but the moods ar else extreme
A person has had at least one episode of suddenly forgetting important personal information. Person usually wanders aimlessly during the episode. Disorder usually ends suddenly with full recovery of memory
A person goes on a journey, during which he cannot recall personal history prior to the journey. During the journey, the person may be disoriented, confused, or violent. Usually involves the assumption of a new identity/occupation. Journey usually ends suddenly with recovery of prior memories but amnesia for the episode
A person has a recurring or persistent feeling of being cut off or detached from his body or mental processes, as if observing themselves from the outside. May feel that the external world is unreal
Paranoid personality disorder
Person mistrusts and misinterprets others' motives and actions without sufficient cause
Schizoid personality disorder
Person is a loner with little interest or involvement in close relationships with anyone
Schizotypal personality disorder
Person has several traits that causes interpersonal problems, including inappropriate affect, paranoid/magical thinking, off beliefs
Antisocial personality disorder
Person has history of serious behavior problems beginning in adolescence, including aggression and rule violation.
Borderline personality disorder
Person suffers from enduring/recurrent instability in his impulses, mood, and self image. Results in instability in behavior and relationships with other. Person feels empty with an unstable sense of self, terrified of abandonment,
Histrionic personality disorder
Strongly desires to be center of attention, and seeks to attract attention through personal appearance and seductive behavior. Dramatic emotional affect with shallow actual emotions, with vague speech
Narcissistic personality disorder
Person feels grandiosely self-important, and feels desperate need for admiration. Feels envy toward/from others. Lacks empathy for others, feels entitled, arrogant, and haughty
Avoidant personality disorder
Person feels inadequate, inferior, and undesirable and is preoccupied with fears of criticism
Dependent personality disorder
Person feels a need to be taken care of by others and an unrealistic fear of being unable to take care of himself
Obsessive compulsive personality disorder
Person does not have any true obsessions/compulsions, but may instead accumulate money and worthless objects. Person is perfectionistic, rigid, and stubborn
Genetics provides a biological predisposition for schizophrenia, but environmental stressors elicit the onset of the disease
Hypersensitive dopamine receptors and overabundance of dopamine is associated with schizophrenia
Severe loss of cognitive ability beyond what would be expected from normal aging.
The most prevalent form of dementia is:
What is Alzheimer's disease?
Dementia that is characterized behaviorally by anterograde amnesia (can remember the past but cannot form new memories). Visual memory is also impaired, leading to confusion with regard to orientation.
Biological basis of Alzheimer's disease
Cortical disease (affects outermost tissue of brain) due to formation of neuritic plaques (hard formations of beta-amyloid protein) and neurofibrillary tangles (clumps of tau protein). Some evidence of acetylcholine activity abnormality in the hippocampus
What is Parkinson's disease?
Movement disorder caused by the death of cells that generate dopamine in the basal ganglia and substantial nigra. Characterized by resting tremor, slowed movement, rigidity of facial muscles, and shuffling gait, and reduction in capacity for language
What is typically used to treat Parkinson's patients
L-dopa--> precursor to dopamine that is able to pass the blood-brain barrier (unlike dopamine)
The tendency to better remember information relevant to ourselves and consistent with one's self-schemas
A situation that arises where a person learns to not act because they perceive they do not have an internal locus of control, after experiencing an extreme situation
Three factors impacting attribution of behavior
Consistency--> is the person's behavior typical
Distinctiveness--> is the person's behaviors towards everything, or just one thing?
Consensus--> are they the only person with that behavior
The belief that bad things happen to other people but not to us
The tendency to believe that people have inherently good/bad natures, rather than looking at individual characteristics. Our overall impression of a person is influenced by how we feel/think about his character
Physical attractiveness stereotype
A specific type of halo effect where people tend to rate attractive individuals more favorably for personality traits and characteristics
Social potency trait
The degree to which a person assumes leadership roles in social situations
Tendency to follow authority. Shown to be common in twins
People with longer dopamine-4 receptor gene are more likely to be:
Traits that are characteristics that direct most of the person's activities (the person's dominant traits that influence all of our behaviors)
Traits such as honesty, sociability, and shyness. Less dominant traits
Traits that are more preferences/attitudes
What percent of the American population will have a serious mental illness?
Disorders that involve distress/disability due to abnormality in development of nervous system. Include intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and ADHD
Urination/defecation at inappropriate times
Having sexual arousal to unusual stimuli
Breakdown of social bonds between an individual and community
The most basic part of self concept. It is the sense of being separate and distinct from others. Awareness that the self is constant throughout life.
Occurs once babies realize they are separate. It is becoming aware that even though we're separate, we exist in the world with others. Babies first learn AGE and GENDER, then SKILLS and SIZE. They learn concepts like traits, comparisons, and careers last.
The authoritarian personality
Obedient to superiors but don't have much sympathy to those inferior to themselves (oppressive). Rigid thinkers, inflexible with viewpoints. Use prejudice to protect their ego and avoid confronting aspects of themselves. HARD to change.
Wide range of higher level internal mental activities (eg. logical reasoning, language) that influence external behaviors
The use of sensory information and pre-existing knowledge to create a functional representation of the world
The brain receives a stimulus input, process the stimulus, and selects and output function.
Cognitive process involving considering each input one at a time
Cognitive process involving devotion to multiple inputs at once
The most evolved portion of the brain is the:
Information processing takes place in the:
The frontal lobe is associated with:
Motor control, decision making, and long-term memory storage
The parietal lobe is associated with:
Tactile information (somatosensory information)
The occipital lobe is associated with:
The temporal lobe is associated with:
Auditory/ olfactory information, emotion and language, and memory formation
Examines brain activity by measuring blood flow, which an indicator of metabolic activity (b/c of need for oxygen for increased metabolic activity)
Piaget's Theory of Development
Posits that all children develop cognitively by experimenting with their environment and passing through same set of developmental stages.
0-2 years: Sensorimotor
-Children learn to separate themselves from the world
-Learn object permanence
2-7 years: Preoperational
-Children learn to use language
-Children think literally and egocentrically
-Children unable to take on perspectives of others
7-11 years: Concrete Operational
-Children develop inductive reasoning
-Understand conservation of mass
11 years +: Formal Operational
-Children develop deductive reasoning
-Can think theoretically and philosophically
-Children at this stage are able to reach post-conventional moral reasoning
Mental representations or frameworks of the world
Fitting new information into preexisting schemas
Changing a schema in response to new information that is unable to fit into previously held schemas
The ability to use specific situations to forming general concepts
The ability to apply general concepts to specific situations
Role of culture in cognitive development
Children in Western cultures are generally object-focused, while those raise in Eastern cultures are more relationally focused.
Learning theory of language development
Language is a form of behavior and is learned through operant conditioning--> continuing interaction with environmental reinforcement
Nativist theory of language development
Noam Chomsky. Language is an innate biological instinct, and everyone has a neural cognitive system allowing for learning of syntax and grammar.
Language acquisition device
Neural cognitive system that allows for learning of syntax and grammar
Interactionist theory of language development
Emphasizes interaction between biology and environment in developing language. The human brain develops so that it can be receptive to new language input and development. Children are motivated to practice the language in order to communicate/socialize
Located in the frontal lobe. Primarily involved in speech production. People who are damaged in this area cannot produce language but understand it normally.
Located in the temporal lobe. Primarily involved in speech comprehension. People who are damaged in this area can hear words and repeat them back, but do not understand language.
The inability to produce language ( despite being able to understand language)
The inability to understand language (despite being able to hear it and produce it)
The ability to understand and reason with complex ideas, adapt effectively to the environment, and learn from experience
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Average is defined at 100. Every 15 points above or below this score represents 1 SD above or below the man.
Advantages and Disadvantages to IQ Tests
-Simple to administer
-Provides scores that are easy to compare
-Correlates with academic performance
-Less able to predict later career success/advancement
-Shows a cultural bias against minorities
-Single number score is misleading
The ability to think logically without the need for previously learned knowledge. Peaks in young adulthood and then declines
The ability to think logically using specific, previously learned knowledge which remains stable throughout adulthood
Gardner's Theory of Intelligence
Theorizes that everyone has a variety of intelligences that are used in combination to solve problems and perform tasks. Intelligence has multiple domains:
Sternberg's Theory of Intelligence
Triarchic theory of intelligence that emerges from a person's adaptive abilities
The components of Emotional Intelligence
-Using and reasoning with emotions
A step by step procedure that leads to a definite solution. It is an exhaustive technique but is not always the most efficient
A strategy where a new problem is reduced to a previously known problem, and prior knowledge of how to determine the solution can be applied
Trial and error
Repeated, unsystematic attempts to solve a problem until the desired outcome is achieved
Mental shortcuts or "rules of thumb" that often lead to a solution. They are timesaving but can potentially lead problem solving efforts astray
Problem solving using personal perception or feeling rather than logic. Aka the "gut feeling". Time saving but potentially flawed.
Rule of thumb where people look for the most representative answer, such as if a person matches a prototype. Essentially seeing the most likely/probable answer as the correct answer
The problem with heuristics is that:
It may lead to overgeneralization
Rule of thumb where we use examples that come to mind to apply to a new problem.
Tendency to view objects as having only a single function. Can be useful but also stifles creativity depending on context
People hold on to their initial beliefs even when rational argument would suggest they are incorrect
The tendency to assume a cause and effect relationship
The components of emotion
Cognition: Personal assessment of the significance of particular situation
Physiological: Activation of the autonomic nervous system
Behavioral: Urges to act in a certain way
NOTE: these components can act in ANY order
The amygdala is associated with:
Emotional reactions of fear and anger
The prefrontal cortex is associated with:
Conscious regulation of emotional states, and CRITICAL in temperament and decision making
The hypothalamus is associated with:
Regulating the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic)
Theory of emotion that states that an external stimulus elicits a physiological response, and that emotional experience depends on recognition and interpretation this physical reaction
Physiological and behavior response---> cognitive awareness--> emotion
Theory of emotion that states that emotional feelings and physiological reactions to stimuli are experienced SIMULTANEOUSLY
physiological and cognitive appraisal simultaneously--> emotion
Two components of emotional response: physiological arousal and situational cues. Must evaluate BOTH before cognitive appraisal of emotion
physiological arousal--> cognitive appraisal of situation--> emotion
Universal emotions include:
Fear, anger, happiness, surprise, joy, disgust, and sadness
A psychological factor that provides a directional force or reason for behavior
A biological, innate tendency to perform a central behavior that leads to the fulfillment of a need
Urges to perform certain behaviors in order to resolve physiological arousal when that arousal is caused by the biological needs of the organism
Drive reduction theory
Focuses on internal factors in motivations. Posits that people are motivated to take action in order to lessen the state of arousal caused by a physiological need
People are motivated by external rewards, and get psychological feeling of pleasure that comes with receiving an incentive
DISTINCT from operant conditioning because it focuses on the internal motivations of the individual rather than their outward behavior
People behave based on what they predict will yield the most favorable outcome
Motivation driven by internal factors (pleasurable feelings or satisfaction). Can be diminished if person continuously receive extrinsic rewards for the behavior
Motivation driven by external rewards.
Need based theory
People are motivated by the desire to fulfill unmet needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological- food, sex, etc.
Safety- physical/emotional security
Esteem- Approval and recognition
Self-actualization- Equation, hobbies, religion
Describes three major components of attitudes
Affective component- person's feelings about the thing
Behavioral component- The influence that attitudes have on behavior
Cognitive component- Beliefs/knowledge about a specific object of interests
People are much more likely to agree to a large request if they first agree to a smaller one
Cognitive dissonance theory
The conflict between internal attitudes and external behaviors. People have an inherent desire to avoid the internal discomfort associated with a mismatch b/t the two. ASSUMES people have a self-concept of consistency and honesty --> will not occur in people who do not view themselves as honest and consistent
Elaboration Likelihood Model
There are two routes to attitude formation: peripheral route processing and central route processing. Each route is defined by the likelihood that the person who receives an argument will elaborate on it by generating his/her own thoughts and opinions in response
Peripheral route processing
Occurs when an individual does not think deeply to evaluate an argument (occurs when a person isn't very invested in an argument/has no knowledge). If a person is using this route, is more likely to change attitude based on situational cues (strength of argument d/n matter)
Central route processing
An individual thinks deeply and even elaborates on argument presented ( occurs when a person is deeply invested in a situation/has not knowledge). If a person is using this route, is more likely to change attitude if argument is strong and persuasive
A person's ability to control their behavior in the absence of rewards or punishments; in association with observational learning
Factors Affecting Attitude Change
-Characteristics of the message
-Characteristics of the target
A strong argument will be effective in changing attitudes through a) central route b) peripheral route or c) both
A weak argument will be effective in changing attitudes through a) central route b) peripheral route or c) both
b--> weak arguments only work through peripheral route
The strain that is experienced when an organism's equilibrium is disrupted and it must adapt
Personal interpretation of the situation that triggers stress
Appraisal view of stress
People make two appraisals which determine their overall emotional reaction to the event.
Evaluating a situation for the presence of any potential threat. If present, a secondary appraisal is generated
Assessing personal ability to cope with a threat. An individual who does not think they can handle a threat will experience greater stress than someone who appraises their ability more highly.
What are the two main hormones released by the sympathetic nervous system?
Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
The primary stress hormone, which increases blood glucose
What level of stress is optimal for performance?
Medium level of arousal
As group size increases, the group is ___________ stable and __________ intimate.
More stable, less intimate
The conversion of physical stimuli into electrical signals that are transferred through the nervous system by neurons. This is a PHYSICAL process.
What determines which sensed stimuli continue to the level of perception?
The lowest intensity of a stimulus that can be sensed and perceived. The intensity level that is detected 50% of the time. While mostly a biological trait, can change based on factors such as strong emotions or degree of subjective importance of correctly identifying a stimulus
"Just noticeable difference"--> the smallest difference that is sufficient for a change in a stimulus to be perceived. The more sensitive the sensory system, the smaller the threshold.
The change in a stimulus required to meet the difference threshold is a certain fraction of the originally presented stimulus. The fraction is constant for each sense but differs based on the original stimulus and what sense we are using.
Sense organs differ in __________.
The more sensitive the sense organ, the __________ the Weber fraction required for detection of the stimulus.
Signal Detection Theory
The ability to detect a meaningful stimulus in the midst of vast amounts of sensory info increases an organism's chances of survival. There is always some amount of error in the process of distinguishing signal from noise, but a higher hit rate will increase sensitivity by the organism.
The individual's tendency toward or against accepting evidence of a signal. It is a cognitive appraisal of input by sensory system, and can occur consciously or unconsciously.
Selects sensory information for perceptual processing and conscious awareness. Any information not paid attention to will only be processed unconsciously.
The focus of attention on one particular stimulus or task at the expulsion of other stimuli. Limitation: potentially important information may be discarded and missed
The splitting of perceptual resources between multiple stimuli or behaviors. Results in the stimuli receiving less attention than if they were focused on individually.
The construction of perceptions from individual pieces of information provided by sensory processing
Brings the influence of prior knowledge into play to make perception more efficient.
Describe the top-down processing that organizes sensory information into distinct forms. Six principles: nearness, similarity, common region, closure, continuity, and figure & ground
Principle of nearness
Clusters of objects will each be perceived as a distinct group
Principle of similarity
Objects with a shared feature (shape) will likewise be perceived as a single group
Principle of common region
Objects sharing a common background will be perceived as a group even if they would be separated by eh principles of nearness and/or similarity
Principle of closure
We perceive whole shapes even when they are not actually present in the stimulus
Principle of continuity
The brain will perceive an ambitious stimulus according to the simplest possible continuous forms
Cannot be represented on the 2D surface of the retina, so the brain compensates by comparing images seen by each eye--> the differences in the two versions of the same stimulus from slightly different locations allows the brain to estimate depth of object being viewed
Cannot be represented on the brain based only on pattern of information received by retina. Visual cortex integrates information gathered by retina and by eye movements to develop correct inferences about motion.
The perceptual problem of distinguishing between information received by the retina and chances in the surrounding. Two types:
Size--> allows a single object to be perceived as being the same size regardless of whether it is moved closer/further from the eye
Shape--> allows us to know an object has the same shape regardless of how light reflects onto it
Awareness of oneself, one's surroundings, one's thoughts, and one's goals
What is the gatekeeper of consciousness?
The default state of consciousness--> most people are generally alert when awake
EEG and Alertness
EEGs show particular types of brainwaves called beta waves when a person is alert
Regulates the body's functions on a predictable schedule. Regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus.
A hormone secreted by the pineal gland that stimulates the drive for sleep as part of the sleep-wake cycle
Located in the hypothalamus. Regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. Maintains drive for wakefulness by inhibiting melatonin. Light triggers SCN firing.
Stage 1 Sleep
-The brain emits alpha waves--> consistent with a relaxed state of wakefulness
Brainwaves detected by an EEG that represent a state of fully alert wakefulness
Brainwaves detected by an EEG during Stage 1 sleep that represent a relaxed state of wakefulness
Stage 2 Sleep
Associated with bursts of brain wave activity that indicate a full transition into sleep
State 3 Sleep
Associated with the appearance of delta wave brain emissions, reflecting the transition into deep sleep. Alpha waves are still around, but are less prominent
Brainwaves detected by an EEG during Stage 3 and Stage 4 sleep that are stronger than alpha waves; signify a person is in deep sleep
Stage 4 Sleep
Deep sleep. Characterized entirely by delta waves on an EEG
Function of sleep cycles
Allows the individual to enjoy benefits of both light and deep sleep.
A period of high brain activity and rapid eye movements that occur during stage 1 sleep. The brain lives the massive amount of stimuli experienced during the day and consolidates important info into memory and discards less important info. The body is immobilized during this stage.
The earlier sleep cycles are predominantly ____________.
The later sleep cycles are ____________.
A mixture between REM and non-REM sleep.
Dreaming occurs during ________ sleep.
Sleep terrors are most likely to occur:
During NREM sleep
The takeover of waking life by REM that occurs without warning
A state of relaxation, focused attention and increased willingness to relinquish control over one's actions. Induced through cooperation with a hypnotist or later as self-hypnosis. CANNOT be done against someone's will.
Intentional, self-produced state of consciousness induced by relying and systematically shifting attention away from day-to-day concerns
Drugs that mimic chemically similar, naturally occurring neurotransmitters
Drugs that bind to neurotransmitter receptors without activating them, thereby blocking the binding of the associated neurotransmitter and undermining its normal effects.
Drugs that interfere with the reuptake of neurotransmitters in the synapse so that a greater amount remains in the synapse
Drugs that prevent the breakdown of neurotransmitters that have been taken up by the presynaptic neuron
Drugs that raise the level of activity in the CNS. Many act by increasing the amount of monoamine neurotransmitters (epinephrine/dopamine) in the synapse.
Drugs that cause a decrease of activity in the CNS.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Interfere with the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters (eg. serotonin, norepinephrine)
Drugs that alter sensory and perceptual experience. Most act as agonists.
Pathway within the limbic system that is associated with feelings of reward in day-to-day life and the feelings of pleasure that lead to craving and addition. Activation of this pathway by addictive drugs leads to increase levels of dopamine.
Neurotransmitter associated with additive behaviors
Parallel processing occurs at the level of bipolar and ganglion cells in the eye. Visual info is then split into two distinct pathways: one that detects motion and one that detects form, and these pathways project to separate areas of the LGN and visual cortex. From there, feature detection occurs via serial processing of the information.
Involves information that is consciously known
Refers to unconscious abilities to remember how to perform a particular task
First phase in memory formation. Acts as temporary storage for incoming sensory stimuli. Encoding at this state is simply transducing physical stimuli into electrical information--> unconscious, neurological process. Information from here will either be lost or encode as short-term memory. Can hold a LOT of information at any given time.
Information that is held as items in conscious awareness. Info can be manipulated rather than stored passively (can be applied to real world).
The combination of storing and activity using short term memory. Info is encoded here through auditory representation (you hear the info you may have initially processed as visual info).
How much information can be held in working memory?
5-9 pieces of information (7 +/- 2)
The repetition of a phonetic representation. A process used to maintain information in working memory.
Reorganizing large number of items into a smaller number of "chunks". A process that allows a larger amount of info to be maintained in working memory
Information that is maintained outside of conscious awareness and can be called back into working memory when needed. HAS NO LIMIT OF STORAGE
Encoding of information into long-term memory is guided by :
The ability of the brain's networks of neurons and their synapses to change. Allows adaptation to chaining life circumstances as well as memory formation (memory can be stored as changes to networks of neurons)
The strengthening of the neural network that represents a memory
Long term potentiation
Describes the increase in likelihood that presynaptic input will trigger an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron. Repeated stimulation by the presynaptic neuron leads to increase in strength of the excitatory postsynaptic potential--> makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire in response to stimulation by the presynaptic neuron. Can take place via additive influence of multiple inputs.
Plays an important role in the initial consolidation of declarative memory and long term potentiation.
The return of information stored in long-term memory into working memory for the purpose of problem-solving and guidance of behavior
Organization of information in networks of meaningfully related memories
Occurs when one item brought into working memory triggers an activation of related memory
The retrieval of memory from scratch. A harder form of retrieval.
The correct identification of information that is presented. An easier form of retrieval.
Environmental stimuli or pieces of information that are associated in some way with a memory being sought. Typically present at the time the memory was originally formed
Role of Emotion in Memory Retrieval
Emotions act as retrieval cues, in that retrieval of memory is strongest when the emotional state during retrieval is similar to that of memory formation. Additionally, memories of higher emotional significance are more readily available for retrieval.
Describes the fading of a memory. Fate of information in working memory that is not encoded into long term memory. Neurologically, represents wearing of connections that make up the neural network holding a memory.
Recall of items at the beginning of the list is strongest
Recall of items at the end of the list is strongest
Newly learned material that prevents successful retrieval of related older memories. Occurs when information that is newly learned is similar to that in older memories
Previously held knowledge prevents successful retrieval of more newly learned information . Occurs when information that is newly learned is similar to that in older memories.
Occurs during retrieval. Memory is a construct of the mind and therefore can be updated with new info and experiences.
Occurs when a person attributes a memory to a particular source. May not always be accurate. Memory construction may follow, where a person converts their inference into memory. Also can lead to incorrect construction of memories that never actually happened.
Nutritional deficiency of vitamin B1, which results in a deficit in the ability to recall recent events. Often due to severe alcoholism.
Our eyes are 2.5 inches apart, so they create slightly different images that the brain puts together to give a solid image with an idea of DEPTH.
The overlapping of objects signifies positioning relative to one another. A monocular cue
Things farther away move slower, while things closer to us move faster
The blind spot
The location on the retina where the optic nerve connects. It has no cones or rods, so images projected there are not visible.
Cognitive awareness of of balance/position of body in space.
Hearing or seeing things that aren't there
A sensation of falling as you enter stage one sleep
Activation Synthesis Hypothesis
Brain gets a lot of neural impulses in brainstem, which is sometimes interpreted by the frontal cortex. Our brain tries to find meaning from random brain activity--> explanation that dreams may not actually have meaning.
Drugs that are used to induce sleep or reduce anxiety. Act as depressants.
Most commonly prescribed suppressant. Act as a sleep aid or anti-anxiety aid. Enhances brain's response to GABA neurotransmitter.
Drugs that are used to treat pain and anxiety. NOT depressants--> act on endorphins.
A stimulant that inhibits adenosine receptors, disrupting sleep.
A stimulant that disrupts sleep and suppresses appetite. Also causes muscles to relax and release stress-reducing neurotransmitters.
Often occur when a person takes a new drug at a high dose, or when a regular drug user takes their normal level of drug dose in an unfamiliar location--> no external cues to alert body that they're getting a dose.
A treatment that activates opiate receptors slowly than other opiates, dampening the high that addicts get. Eases withdrawal.
Cocktail party effect
Ability to concentrate on one voice amongst a crowd
We aren't aware of things not in our visual filed when our attention is directed elsewhere in that field
A failure to bring attention to changes in our environment
Exposure to one stimulus affects a response to another stimulus, even if we haven't been paying attention to it
Serial position effect
Encompass the primacy and recency effects that come with trying to remember a list of items
Visual and spatial info are processed in the:
Verbal info is processed in the:
Dual coding hypothesis
It's easier to remember words associated with images than either one alone.
Memory of words and phrases (remembering simple facts)
Using unrelated stimuli or words to help you remember information. Encoding strategy
Thinking about new information and how it relates to you personally. Form of encoding
Spreading out studying to shorter periods for greater encoding of information
Retrieval cues that are related to the state you were in when you learned the information.
Highly vivid memories that are tied to emotions. Can be subjected to reconstruction.
Inability to recall info previously encoded
Inability to encode new memories
Problem solving method where we analyze main problem and break it down into smaller problems, and reduce differences between the problem and goal
Type I error
Type II error
The co-occurrence of two instances is more likely than a single one.
When both production and understanding of language is damaged
The inability to conduct between listening and speaking is disrupted
Experience of emotion depends on how the situation is labelled. We label the situation, which then leads to emotional and physiological response
General adaptation syndrome
Involves three distinct stages of stress:
1) Alarm phase--> stress kicks in and heart races
2) Resistance--> fleeing, huddling, a ton of cortisol
3) Exhaustion--> if this doesn't occur, we get tissue damage
Most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, EXCEPT vision. Acts as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter on bipolar cells of the eye in the absence of light.
GABA and glycine
Most common inhibitory neurotransmitters
Prototype willingness model
Behavior is a function of: past behavior, attitudes, subjective norms, our intentions, our willingness to engage in a specific type of behavior, and prototypes/models. Argues that a lot of our behavior is carried out from prototyping
Elaboration likelihood model
Model of Persuasion. There are two ways information is processes: central processing (depending on quality of arguments by persuader) and peripheral (superficial-non-verbal persuasion cues)
Principle of aggregation
An attitude affects a person's average behavior, but not necessarily each isolated act
The idea that self-control is a limited resource. If you use a lot of it, it can get used up and you'll have less to use in the future
We are victims of circumstance, but others are willful actors. Form of fundamental attribution error.
Self-serving bias is more prominent in ______________.
Hypothesis of Relative Deprivation
Upsurge in prejudice when people are deprived of something they feel entitled to
First impressions are important-- extra emphasis on information that reinforces first impression
Your most recent actions are important--> people place emphasis on your more recent actions/performances
The most powerful predictor of friendships and relationships:
When we assume others share the same beliefs we do
False consensus bias
When we assume everyone else agrees with what we do, even if they do not
One institution can unintentionally influence another institution negatively.
Even if discrimination done in the past is no longer allowed, can still have consequences for people in the present
An organization by which its members do not have a choice
An organization where people are paid/rewarded for their efforts
Iron rule of oligarchy
Even the most democratic of organizations become more bureaucratic over time until they're governed by a select few
Weber's 5 main characteristic of an ideal bureaucracy
-Division of labor
-Hierarchy of organization
-Written rules and regulations
-Employment based on technical qualifications
Type of experimental control that determines what experimental group does without the directly desired impact
Treatment with known response
Group with no response expected
All variables examined are continuous. Makes assumptions about which variable is influencing the other
All variables examined are continuous. Makes no assumptions about causation.
Involves categorical variables. Looks at 2 distributions of categorical data to see if they differ from each other.
Compares mean values of a continuous variable between 2 categories/groups.
Compares mean values of a contributes variable for multiple categories/groups
looks at a group of different people at one moment in time
Observational study where 2 people differing in outcome are identified and compared to find a causal factor
Extent to which a causal conclusion based on a study is warranted. Impacted by confounding factors
Whether the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people. Protected for by randomization of sample and control of situational variables
Whether a tool is measuring what it is intended to measure
Regression to the mean
If the first measurement is extreme, second measurement will be closer to the mean
Approximating the true variables of interests with one that can be measured or tabulated
Error that is due to chance and is not standardized. Decreases precision.
Error that shifts all measurements in a standardized way. Decreases accuracy. Can result in bias
When an observer intentionally/unintentionally records a distorted measurement
Errors due to systematic malfunctioning of a mechanical instrument
When a study participate intentionally/unintentionally reports distorted measurements
1st stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development
-Ages 0-2 years
-Children learn to separate themselves from the world
-Object permanence is learned here
Pre operational stage
2nd stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development
-Ages 2-7 years
-Children learn to use language
-Children think literally and egocentrically here--> unable to take on perspective of others
Concrete Operational stage
3rd stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development
-Ages 7-11 years
-Children develop inductive reasoning
-Children learn about conservation of mass
Formal Operational stage
4th stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development
-Children develop deductive reasoning
-Children start to think theoretically and philosophically
-Children can begin to develop post-conventional moral reasoning (Kohlberg's theory!)
Trust vs Mistrust
Erikson psychosocial crisis resolved in the first year of life. Ability to trust.
Autonomy vs shame/doubt
Erikson psychosocial crisis resolved in the second year of life. Ability to self-care.
Initiative vs guilt
-Erikson psychosocial crisis
-Resolved in age 3-6 years
-Ability to carry out a plan
Industry vs inferiority
-Erikson psychosocial crisis
-Resolved age 7-12 years
-Ability to learn new tasks
Identity vs role confusion
-Erikson psychosocial crisis
-Resolved in adolescence
-Ability to form a stable identity
Intimacy vs isolation
-Erikson psychosocial crisis
-Resolved in young adulthood
-Ability to form relationships with others
Generativity vs stagnation
-Erikson psychosocial crisis
-Resolved in middle adulthood
-Ability to put energy into others
Integrity vs despair
-Erikson psychosocial crisis
-Resolved in mature adulthood
-Determining how well one has lived
Inability to accommodate the lens of the eye. Normal part of age.
The primary sense of humans is:
Feature detection theory
We activate different areas of the brain when looking at different features of an image. Allows for parallel processing of a visual stimulus.
Technique where a participant is asked to repeat a word or phrase immediately after its heard
Linguistic information is lateralized in the:
What aspect of cognition is unaffected by aging?
Capacity for retrieving general information
Patterns of stimuli from objects and events that actually reach your senses
Objects and events out in the world around you
Describes how the context in which a stimulus occurs can contribute to how people perceive that stimulus
Overlapping of social categories such as race, class, gender as they apply to a given individual or group. Creates interdependent systems of discrimination/disadvantage
The looking glass self
How we see ourselves does not come from who we really are, but rather from how we believe others see us
George Herbert Mead's I vs Me
-Description of a restricted influence of other people on our perceptions of self
-Generalized other: society as a whole and its expectations on an individual
-Me: our social self (how we believe society sees us)
-I: response to the social self (our personal responses to what society thinks)
-Our actual self balances the I and the Me
3 Stages of Self Consciousness Development
-Prepatory stage--> imitation of others
-Play stage--> pretend play, focused on perspectives of other people (role taking)
-Game stage--> understanding of generalized other, starting to understand that people can take multiple roles in society
Structures involved in the reward pathway
Theory of hearing. Our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane
A method of controlling for order effects in a repeated measure design by either including all orders of treatment or by randomly determining the order for each subject
Antipsychotic medications that have an added side effect of enhancing negative symptoms. The "original" drugs
Antipsychotics that do not have significant side effects common to older antipsychotics
If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. AKA the objective reality of a situation doesn't matter as much as someone's perception of what they believe is happening. Theory of social constructionism.
The mind has an attenuator which is able to turn down unattended sensory input rather than eliminating it.
A model of visual attention. Shifts in attention precede the movement of our eyes
Problem with feature detection theory regarding how all of different aspects of feature detection are assembled together and related to a single object. This problem is solved by visual attention.
Resource model of attention
We have a limited pool of resource son which to draw when performing tasks. Practicing a task diminishes task resource demand
Factors Associated with Performance on Multitasking
A component of working memory where we repeat verbal information to help us remember it
A component of working memory where we create mental images to remember visual information
A component of working memory where information in working memory interacts with information in long term memory (eg. relating information you are processing to a previous memory)
The hippocampus is critical in:
The formation of NEW memories (and emotional, flashbulb memories)
A tendency to fixate on solutions that worked in the past but might apply to a current situation.
The tendency to judge arguments based on what one believes about their conclusions rather than on whether they use sound logic
Frustration Aggression principle
When someone is blocked from achieving a goal, this frustration can trigger anger and lead to aggression
Area of the brainstem involved in alertness and arousal
Multimodal technique to measure physiological processes during sleep
Bursts of waves on an EEG distinctive for stage 2 sleep
Stage 1 sleep is dominated by:
A sleepy, relaxed state of awakeness will show what type of wave on an EEG?
The phenomenon that occurs when someone misses REM sleep in a night. Causes an increase in REM sleep the next night
A neurotransmitter associated with narcolepsy
Using imagination to create inaccurate memories
The effects of alcohol on the nervous system
Stimulates GABA and dopamine systems--> creates feelings of reduced anxiety and minor euphoria
The pleasure center of the brain
Emotional Regulatory Centers of Brain
Amygdala--> conduction and identification emotions
Hypothalamus--> creates physiological aspects of emotions
Prefrontal cortex--> controls behavioral aspects of emotions
The autonomic nervous system is regulated primary by the:
What region of the brain is particularly important in negative conditioning?
Which region of then brain is particularly important in positive conditioning?
Is reinforcement or punishment a more effective form of conditioning?
Reinforcement---> punishment does not have a long lasting effect
Learning occurs more quickly through what type of stimuli?
Primary stimuli ---> learning is quicker if it's biologically relevant
The conversion of working memory into long term memory
Biological basis of empathy
Mirror neurons are responsible
The interaction between a person's behaviors, personal factors (individual motivational forces), and environment. Posits that people both shape and are shaped by their environments.
Infant reflex where a baby will startle in response to a loud sound or sudden movement.
Infant reflex where a baby will turn its head towards a stroke of cheek and open its mouth
Infant reflex where if its foot is stroked, the baby's toes fan out
Primitive, involuntary movements of infants that serve to prime the neuromuscular system and form the basis for more complex movements later in life.
First voluntary movements performed by a child
Fundamental movement stage
Occurs from age 2-7. During this time, child is learning to manipulate his body through actions like running, jumping, throwing. Necessary for proper motor development
Specialized movement stage
Children learn to combine fundamental movements and apply them to specific tasks.
What point in the human lifespan has the highest amount of neurons?
The inability to remember memories before age 3.5
The fear a child feels for faces that are not recognized by their developed schemas
Infants will play in the presence of their primary caregiver, but will become distressed when the caregiver leaves the room. Upon the caregiver's return, the child will seek contact with her and is easily consoled
In the presence of their caregiver, infants aren't likely to explore their environment and might cling to their caregiver. If the caregiver leaves, the child will either be extremely distressed or demonstrate indifference to her departure. Occurs when mothers are insensitive or unresponsive
Brief and fleeting photographic memory
Fleeting memory for sound
Remembering to do things in the future
Older adults show minimal decline in ________ but greater decline in __________.
recognition, free recall
Older information can facilitate the learning of new information
The tendency to misremember information
Hormone released by the stomach and pancreas that heightens the sensation of hunger
A hormone released by white adipose tissue to reduce hunger
Dementia is characterized by ____________ amnesia.
Justification of effort
People may modify their attitudes to match their behaviors
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