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Chapter 2 Study Guide Biology
Terms in this set (20)
In a chemical reaction,which are the reactants and which are the products?
A reactant is a substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction.A product is a substance that is present at the end of a chemical reaction.
Why is molecular shape important?
It determines how molecules recognize and interact with each other
What determines the chemical behavior of an atom?
The distribution of electrons in the atoms electron shells
What is the maximum number of electrons that can be held by the first innermost electron shell?
What is the maximum number of electrons that can be held by the second innermost electron shell?
What are valence electrons?
electrons in the outermost shell
What determines the valence number of an atom?
For neutral atoms, the number of valence electrons is equal to the atom's main group number.
What two actions do atoms do in order, to fill their outermost shell?
They can share or transfer valence electrons
What is a covalent bond?
sharing of electrons
What is an example of a covalent bond?
What is a polar covalent bond?
unequal sharing of electrons
What is an example of a polar covalent bond?
What is electronegativity?
ability to attract electrons
How can you determine whether a covalent bond is polar or not?
By the electronegativity difference
0.0 to 0.2 non polar covalent
0.3 to 1.4 polar covalent
What is an ionic bond?
When one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
What is a cation?
A positively charged ion
How is a cation formed?
by losing electrons
What is an anion?
A negatively charged ion
How is an anion formed?
By gaining electrons
What is a hydrogen bond?
the attraction between a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge and another atom with a partial negative charge
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