How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

91 terms

Neuro - aggression, ADHD, developmental disorders, psychosis

STUDY
PLAY
18-24
This age group is most susceptible to violence AND most likely to commit violent acts
Friends/Acquaintances
Most common cause of violent acts when perpetrator is known
Argument
Most common circumstance of murder when cause is known
Gun
Most commonly used murder weapon
Male
Gender more likely to commit murder, and be murdered
Premeditated (cold-blooded)
Aggression that is calculated, predatory, instrumental
Impulsive (warm-blooded)
Aggression that is reactive, defensive, autonomic arousal
L orbitofrontal, R Ant Cingulate, B Ant Temporal
Regions of brain associated with anger in normal individuals
PFC, S Parietal, L angular, Corpus callosum
Regions of decreased glucose metabolism in murderers
Amygdala, Thalamus, R Medial Temporal
Regions of asymmetric activity in murderers
Head injuries, EEG, Seizure, Neurological soft signs
Possible neurological findings in aggression
Serotonin
Low levels of this neurotransmitter can cause impulsive aggression, in the most widely accepted theory
Acetylcholine
High levels of this neurotransmitter may cause predatory aggression
GABA
High levels of this neurotransmitter have an inhibitory effect on aggression
Norepinephrine
Low levels of this neurotransmitter can cause both impulsive and episodic aggression
Dopamine
High levels of this neurotransmitter cause aggression in animals, but not in humans
Testosterone
High levels of this hormone are associated with aggression in men, but not women
MAOA-L
Genotype that predicts increased violence in males, but not females
MAOA-H
Genotype that predicts no increase in violence in both males and females
MAOA-H
Genotype that predicts normal amygdala and cingulate volume
MAOA-L
Genotype that predicts decreased amygdala and cingulate volume
Go / Nogo
Experiment designed to test information processing differences in inhibition of behavior in normal vs aggressive subjects
Alcohol
CNS depressant that increased risk of violence by 12 times
Stimulants, hallucinogens, sedative hypnotics,m opiates, anticholinergics, steroids
Other drugs that increase the risk of aggression
Rejection
Primary parental contribution (or lack thereof) that leads to aggressive behavior
Abuse
Parental contribution that increases risk of kids with low MAOA to developing violence
Social skills training
Treatment intended to improve communication and teaches alternative behaviors to violence
Cognitive therapy
Treatment involving problem solving, recognition of feelings, anger management, and understanding
Behavior therapy
Treatment that rewards desirable actions to reinforce the good
Neuroleptics
Drug class to decrease limbic activation and increase prefrontal control
Benzodiazepines
Drug class to calm patients in acute aggression
Lithium
Drug used for managing not just bipolar aggression, but normal aggression as well
Anticonvulsants
Drug class that works to reduce aggression whether or not the patient has a seizure
Stimulants
Drug class that improves behavior in ADHD patients
7
Critical age of onset of ADHD (where symptoms must occur before)
3
Typical age of onset in ADHD
7
Prevalence of ADHD in typical population (percentage)
Hyperactivity, impulsive, inattention
The critical components that make up a diagnosis of ADHD
Tourette's disorder
DDx for ADHD that features motor and vocal tics
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Similar disorder to ADHD, but characterized by impulsive, inattentive behavior with authority challenge
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Deficits in learning and social skills that is confused with ADHD
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
The most common co-morbid condition with ADHD
Stimulants
The use of this substance in the treatment of ADHD may reduce substance abuse
(Maternal) smoking, alcohol
Pre/perinatal risk factors that dramatically increase the risk for ADHD
Diet, allergy
"Risk factors" that are NOT implicated in ADHD
Frontostriatal
Key brain region (collection) that is responsible for ADHD
Norepinephrine
Neurotransmitter responsible for inhibitory activity on striatal structures implicated in ADHD
Dopamine
Neurotransmitter responsible for striatal output, excess of which is implicated in ADHD
Alpha-2 agonists
Drug class that can be useful for impulsivity and inattention, but has risk of sedation and hypotension
Antidepressants
Current drug class under FDA review for ADHD
Otitis media (Ear infection)
Important differential to rule out for a diagnosis of ADHD; commonly performed by school nurses
Autism
A 6-year old male presents with poor language development and lack of symbolic play, occuring before the age of 3. Physical exam revealed lack of eye contact, peer relationships, or social reciprocity; failure to sustain conversation; and repetitive nonfunctional motor movements. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Rett's disorder
This relatively rare autism-like disorder occurs only in females, and is characterized by autistic symptoms including hand wringing.
Prader-Willi syndrome
This disorder is characterized by a chromosome 15q partial deletion, commonly presenting with mental retardation and insatiable appetite.
Angelman syndrome
This disorder is caused by deletion of genes in maternal chromosome 15, characterized by sleep disturbances, seizures, and puppet-like movements.
Down syndrome
This trisomy is commonly associated with mild mental retardation.
Turner's syndrome
This monosomy is typically NOT associated with mental retardation.
Rubella
This disease, causing congenital cataracts and encephalitis, can lead to mental retardation, and is preventable by vaccine.
Hurler's syndrome
This lysosomal storage disease caused by the buildup of glycosaminoglycans can cause progressive deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, dwarfism, and mental retardation.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
A lifelong disorder that accounts for 5% of all birth defects, leading to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders, and is completely preventable.
Neuroleptics
A drug class that is sometimes used off-label for the management of autism.
SSRIs
A drug class that is used for mood-related disorders occuring with autism.
Affective flattening, alogia, avolition, anhedonia, attention impairment
The "5 A's" that are negative symptoms of psychosis
Paranoid psychosis
Psychosis occurring with delusions, hostile belligerance, grandiose behavior, and hallucinations
Disorganized psychosis
Psychosis occurring with disorientation and incoherent language, sometimes with excitement
Depressive psychosis
Psychosis occurring with retardation and apathy, and anxious self punishment/blame
Catatonia
Behavior characterized by immobility, resistance to movement, mutism, and stereotypy
Persecutory
Delusions e.x "the government is out to get me"
Grandiose
Delusions e.x "I'm the king of the world"
Religious
Delusions e.x "I'm the Messiah"
Erotomanic
Delusions e.x "Paris Hilton loves me"
Somatic
Delusions e.x "There are worms in my stomach"
(Delusions of) Reference
Delusions e.x "That chair is trying to tell me something"
(Delusions of) Thought Control
Delusions e.x "Someone is trying to read my mind"
Positive
Delusions, hallucinations, and distortions fall into this category of symptoms
Negative
Blunted affect, social withdrawal, passivity, lack of spontaneity fall into this category of symptoms
Schizophreniform disorder
Schizophrenia-like disorder with an onset between 1 and 6 months
Brief psychotic disorder
Schizophrenia-like disorder with an onset that is short term (1 month)
Schizoaffective disorder
Schizophrenia-like disorder co-morbid with something like MDD
Male
This gender typically has an earlier onset of schizophrenia.
Mesolimbic
Positive symptoms are explained by an excess of dopamine acting on this pathway.
Mesolimbic
This pathway connects the ventral tegmental area with the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens
Mesocortical
Negative symptoms are explained by an decrease of dopamine acting on this pathway.
Mesocortical
This pathway connects the ventral tegmental area with the cerebral cortex.
Serotonin
LSD may affect the levels of this neurotransmitter in the brain.
Glutamate
PCP may affect the levels of this neurotransmitter in the brain.
GABA
Benzodiazepines may improve schizophrenia by modulating the levels of this neurotransmitter.
Excitotoxicity
Theory that chronic stimulation of neurons could lead to neuro-degeneration and eventally apoptosis.
Neurodevelopmental
This hypothesis explains the preponderance of schizophrenia in babies born over the winter months.
Neurodegenerative
This hypothesis explains the role of excitotoxicity in the development of schizophrenia.
Tubular infundibulum (pathway)
Removal of dopamine may interfere with inhibition of prolactin release by this pathway, leading to gynecomastia.