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L orbitofrontal, R Ant Cingulate, B Ant Temporal
Regions of brain associated with anger in normal individuals
Low levels of this neurotransmitter can cause impulsive aggression, in the most widely accepted theory
Go / Nogo
Experiment designed to test information processing differences in inhibition of behavior in normal vs aggressive subjects
Stimulants, hallucinogens, sedative hypnotics,m opiates, anticholinergics, steroids
Other drugs that increase the risk of aggression
Social skills training
Treatment intended to improve communication and teaches alternative behaviors to violence
Treatment involving problem solving, recognition of feelings, anger management, and understanding
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Similar disorder to ADHD, but characterized by impulsive, inattentive behavior with authority challenge
Neurotransmitter responsible for inhibitory activity on striatal structures implicated in ADHD
Drug class that can be useful for impulsivity and inattention, but has risk of sedation and hypotension
Otitis media (Ear infection)
Important differential to rule out for a diagnosis of ADHD; commonly performed by school nurses
A 6-year old male presents with poor language development and lack of symbolic play, occuring before the age of 3. Physical exam revealed lack of eye contact, peer relationships, or social reciprocity; failure to sustain conversation; and repetitive nonfunctional motor movements. What is the most likely diagnosis?
This relatively rare autism-like disorder occurs only in females, and is characterized by autistic symptoms including hand wringing.
This disorder is characterized by a chromosome 15q partial deletion, commonly presenting with mental retardation and insatiable appetite.
This disorder is caused by deletion of genes in maternal chromosome 15, characterized by sleep disturbances, seizures, and puppet-like movements.
This disease, causing congenital cataracts and encephalitis, can lead to mental retardation, and is preventable by vaccine.
This lysosomal storage disease caused by the buildup of glycosaminoglycans can cause progressive deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, dwarfism, and mental retardation.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
A lifelong disorder that accounts for 5% of all birth defects, leading to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders, and is completely preventable.
Affective flattening, alogia, avolition, anhedonia, attention impairment
The "5 A's" that are negative symptoms of psychosis
Psychosis occurring with delusions, hostile belligerance, grandiose behavior, and hallucinations
Psychosis occurring with disorientation and incoherent language, sometimes with excitement
Psychosis occurring with retardation and apathy, and anxious self punishment/blame
Blunted affect, social withdrawal, passivity, lack of spontaneity fall into this category of symptoms
This pathway connects the ventral tegmental area with the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens
Theory that chronic stimulation of neurons could lead to neuro-degeneration and eventally apoptosis.
This hypothesis explains the preponderance of schizophrenia in babies born over the winter months.
This hypothesis explains the role of excitotoxicity in the development of schizophrenia.
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