100 terms

Criminology 9-13 theory's and facts

Integrated theory
A complex, multi factor theory that attempts to blend seemingly independent concepts into a coherent explanation of criminality
Developmental Criminology
A branch of criminology that examines changes in criminal careers over the life course
Latent Trait theory
Wilson and Herrnstein
The view that criminal behavior is controlled by a master trait present at birth or soon after that remains stable and unchanging through out a persons lifetime
Developmental theory
The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as idividual characteristics
Latent Trait
A stable feature, characteristic, property, or condition , such as defective intelligence or impulsive personality that makes some people crime prone over their life course
General theory of crime(GTC)
A developmental theory that modifies social control theory by integrating concepts from Bio-social, Psychological, routine activities , and rational choice theories
Impulsive personality
Low self control
poor parenting
deviant parents
lack of supervision
self centered
Weakening of social bonds
Criminal opportunity
free time
suitable targets
Crime and deviance
signs that a person has low self control
insensitive physical nonverbal here and now risk taker refuses to work
Control balance theory
need a balance in between the two
a developmental theory that attributes deviant and criminal behaviors to imbalances between the amount of control that the individual has over others and that other have over him or her
Life course theory
theory that focuses on changes in criminality over the life course developmental theory
The glueck research
sheldon and eleanor glueck
1930s popularized research on the life cycle of delinquents careers
early onset of delinquency
children who are antisocial early in life are the most likely to continue their offending careers into adulthood
problem behavior syndrome(PBS)
a cluster of antisocial behaviours that may include family dysfunction substance abuse, smoking precocious sexuality and early pregnancy educational under achievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as crime
Authority conflict pathway
pathway to criminal deviance that begins at an early age with stubborn behavior and leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance
covert pathway
pathway to a criminal career that begins with minor underhanded behavior leads to property damage and eventually escalates to more serious forms of theft and fraud
Overt Pathway
pathway to a criminal career that begins with minor aggression leads to physical fighting and eventually escalates to violent crime
Adolescent limited
offender who follows the most common criminal trajectory in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes
Life course persister
one of the small group of offenders whose criminal career continues well into adulthood
Developmental theories
look at such issues as the onset of crime escalation of offences, continuity of crime and desistance of crime
Adolescent-limited offenders
adolescents begin offending late and age out of crime. life course presisters exhibit early onset of crime that persists into adulthood
Interactional theory
Birds of a feather!
Terence Thornberry
A developmental theory that attributes criminal trajectories to mutual reinforcements between delinquents and significant other over the life course- family in early adolescence, school and friends in mid adolescence and social peers and ones own nuclear family in adulthood
Turning points
critical life events, such as career and marriage, that may enable adult offenders to desist from crime
Sampson and Laub: Age graded theory
identify turning points in a criminal career
stability and delinquent behavior can be affected by events that occur later in life even after a chronic delinquent career has been established
agree with Hirschi and Gottfredson that formal and informal social controls restrict criminality and that crime begins early in life and continues over the life course
Social capital
positive relations with individual and institutions as in a successful marriage or a successful career that support conventional behavior and inhibit deviant behavior
social development model
integrates social control social learning and structural models
Age graded theory
building social capital and strong social bonds reduces the likelihood of long term deviance
Instermental violence
violence designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal
Expressive violence
violence that vents rage anger or frustrations
personal traits
Lepine claimed 14 loves before turning the gun on himself, (Bill c 68 December 5,1995) second anaversery,violence and personal traits and personality disorders, (hormones testosterone)
Ineffective families
family violence, rejection, abusive parenting
Evolutionary factors/human instinct
inherent in all humans easily trigered by the right spark (sigmund Freud
eros the life instinct and
thanatos the death instinct
Subculture of violence
norms and customs that in contrast to society's dominant value system, legitimize and expect the use of violence to resolve social conflicts
Substance abuse
Economic compulsive behaviour -inhibitor money to feed addiction,
psychopharmacological -violence may be a direct consequence of ingesting mood altering substances,
cognitive ability
systemic link-function of rival gangs, drug markets
Firearm availability
facilitating factor
rape and sexual assault
1983- rape replaced by sexual assault
the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will (with out voluntary consent
sexual assault
anything from unwanted touching to rape
Levels of sexual assault
level 1 sexual assault
level- 2 assault with a weapon or resulting in bodily harm
level 3 aggravated sexual assault
history of rape and sexual assault
15th century women was property
16th was changed
6% reported to police
sexual assault and the military
may 1998 McLean's magazine(sexual assault in Canadian military is wide spread
Greeks rape was socially acceptable in rules of warfare
crusades - knights and pilgrims took time to rape
war 2 the Japanese army farced 200 000 Korean women into front line brothel genocide rape was deliberately used to impregnate Bosnian women with serbian children
Gang rape
forcible sex involving multiple attackers
acquaintance rape
forcible sex in which offender and victim are acquainted with one another
date rape
forcible sex during a courting relationship
marital rape
forcible sex between people who are legally married to each other
statistics of rape
anger 40%
power 55%
sadistic rape 5%
1979(groth and birnbam
Marital exemption
traditional legal doctrine that a legally married husband could not be charged with raping his wife
sexual interference
touching the body of a person who is under 14 years of age for a sexual purpose
invitation to sexual touching
inviting counselling, or inciting someone under age 14 to touch the body of someone else for a sexual purpose
sexual exploitation
sexual contact even if consensual between a person aged 14 to 18 and someone in a position of trust or authority such as a minister, coach, employer, or teacher
shield laws
legislation that protects sexual assault victims from being questioned about their sexual history unless it bears directly on the case
intentional killing of another person recognized as having two classes first and second degree murder
First degree murder
the killing of another person that is planned and deliberate, law enforcement agent, related to committing another crime
Second degree murder
intentional killing of another person that is not first degree murder
first degree murder, second degree murder, manslaughter are infanticide. deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, and accidental or justifiable homicide are not included
homicide or the killing of another person by committing an unlawful act with only a general intent(speeding , giving a lethal punch, provoked brawl)
the killing of an infant shortly after birth by the mother because she is not fully recovered from the effects of giving birth
thrill killing
impulsive slaying of a stranger as an act of daring of recklessness
serial killer
one who skills a series of victims over a long period of time
mass murderer
one who kills many victims in a single violent outburst
Assault level 1
force, with intent and without consent, against another person or openly wearing a weapon impending another person
assault level 2
assault with a weapon threatening to use a weapon or assault causing bodily harm
Assault level 3
aggravated assault involving the wounding maiming disfiguring or endangering the life of another person
child abuse
violence, mistreatment or neglect that a child or adolescent may experience wile in the care of some one he or she either trusts or depends on
child neglect
failing to provide what a child needs for his or her physiological or emotional development and well being
taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat of force and or by putting the victim in fear
an offence of criminal harassment which is behavior that causes another person to fear for his or her safety
Hate crime
a violent act directed toward a particular person or group because of a discernible color race religion or ethnic origin
Thrill seeking hate crimes
sadistic thrill
reactive hate crimes
wrong race reactive hate crime
mission hate crime
the illegal use of force against innocent people to achieve a political objective
work place violence
job stress insensitive management style
political crimes
are committed when people believe that violence is the only means available to produce political change
the attempt by a government to wipe out a minority group within its jurisdiction
crusades eleventh century
peasants and downtrodden noblemen prey upon passing pilgrims
occasional criminals
offenders who do not define themselves by a criminal role or view themselves as committed career criminals
situational inducement
short term influence on a persons behavior such as financial problems or peer pressure that increases risk taking
professional criminals
offenders who make a significant portion of their income from crime
taking for ones own use the property of another, by means other then force or threats on the victim or forcibly breaking into a persons home or workplace
constructive possession
a legal fiction that applies to situations in which persons voluntarily give up physical custody of their property but still retain legal owner ship( jewelery store)
Theft under 5000
theft where the value of the property stolen dose not exceed 5000: treated as a hybrid offence for which a crown can proceed by why of summary conviction or indictment
theft over 5000
theft where the value of property stolen exceeds 5000 treated as an indictable offence
the taking of goods from retail stores
possessional shoplifter who steals with the intention of reselling stolen merchandise
receiver of stolen goods
amateur shoplifter who does not self identify as a thief but who systematically steals merchandise for personal use
arrest by owner of property
the right of the owner or designate to arrest without warrant anyone found committing a criminal offence on or in relation to the owners property
Target removal strategy
displaying dummy or disabled goods as a means of preventing shoplifting
target hardening strategy
locking goods into place or using electronic tags and sensing devices as means of preventing shoplifting
Types of motor vehicle theft
joyriding-to experience the benefits
short term transportation-go form one place to another
long-term transportation-keep the car for personal use
profit-monetary gain
commission of another crime-to use in other crimes
false pretenses
misrepresenting a fact in a way that causes a deceived victim to give money or property to the offenders
use of deceit or falsehood, whether or not it is a false pretense to obtain property money or other valuables from a person or the public
Naive cheque forgers
amateurs who cash bad cheques because of some financial crisis but have little identification with a criminal subculture
Systematic forgers
professionals who make a living by passing bad cheques
confidence game
a swindle, usually involving a get rich quick scheme often with illegal overtones so that the victim will be afraid or embarrassed to call the police
embezzlement(breach of trust)
taking and keeping the property of others, such as clients or employers with which one has been entrusted
Burglary(break and enter)
breaking into and entering a place with the intent to commit an indictable offence
the intentional or reckless damage by fire or explosion to property