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Integrated theory

A complex, multi factor theory that attempts to blend seemingly independent concepts into a coherent explanation of criminality

Developmental Criminology

A branch of criminology that examines changes in criminal careers over the life course

Latent Trait theory
Wilson and Herrnstein

The view that criminal behavior is controlled by a master trait present at birth or soon after that remains stable and unchanging through out a persons lifetime

Developmental theory

The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as idividual characteristics

Latent Trait

A stable feature, characteristic, property, or condition , such as defective intelligence or impulsive personality that makes some people crime prone over their life course

General theory of crime(GTC)

A developmental theory that modifies social control theory by integrating concepts from Bio-social, Psychological, routine activities , and rational choice theories

Impulsive personality


Low self control

poor parenting
deviant parents
lack of supervision
self centered

Weakening of social bonds


Criminal opportunity

free time
suitable targets

Crime and deviance


signs that a person has low self control

insensitive physical nonverbal here and now risk taker refuses to work

Control balance theory
need a balance in between the two

a developmental theory that attributes deviant and criminal behaviors to imbalances between the amount of control that the individual has over others and that other have over him or her

Life course theory

theory that focuses on changes in criminality over the life course developmental theory

The glueck research
sheldon and eleanor glueck

1930s popularized research on the life cycle of delinquents careers
early onset of delinquency
children who are antisocial early in life are the most likely to continue their offending careers into adulthood

problem behavior syndrome(PBS)

a cluster of antisocial behaviours that may include family dysfunction substance abuse, smoking precocious sexuality and early pregnancy educational under achievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as crime

Authority conflict pathway

pathway to criminal deviance that begins at an early age with stubborn behavior and leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance

covert pathway

pathway to a criminal career that begins with minor underhanded behavior leads to property damage and eventually escalates to more serious forms of theft and fraud

Overt Pathway

pathway to a criminal career that begins with minor aggression leads to physical fighting and eventually escalates to violent crime

Adolescent limited

offender who follows the most common criminal trajectory in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes

Life course persister

one of the small group of offenders whose criminal career continues well into adulthood

Developmental theories

look at such issues as the onset of crime escalation of offences, continuity of crime and desistance of crime

Adolescent-limited offenders

adolescents begin offending late and age out of crime. life course presisters exhibit early onset of crime that persists into adulthood

Interactional theory
Birds of a feather!

Terence Thornberry
A developmental theory that attributes criminal trajectories to mutual reinforcements between delinquents and significant other over the life course- family in early adolescence, school and friends in mid adolescence and social peers and ones own nuclear family in adulthood

Turning points

critical life events, such as career and marriage, that may enable adult offenders to desist from crime

Sampson and Laub: Age graded theory

identify turning points in a criminal career
stability and delinquent behavior can be affected by events that occur later in life even after a chronic delinquent career has been established
agree with Hirschi and Gottfredson that formal and informal social controls restrict criminality and that crime begins early in life and continues over the life course

Social capital

positive relations with individual and institutions as in a successful marriage or a successful career that support conventional behavior and inhibit deviant behavior

social development model

integrates social control social learning and structural models

Age graded theory

building social capital and strong social bonds reduces the likelihood of long term deviance

Instermental violence

violence designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal

Expressive violence

violence that vents rage anger or frustrations

personal traits

Lepine claimed 14 loves before turning the gun on himself, (Bill c 68 December 5,1995) second anaversery,violence and personal traits and personality disorders, (hormones testosterone)

Ineffective families

family violence, rejection, abusive parenting

Evolutionary factors/human instinct

inherent in all humans easily trigered by the right spark (sigmund Freud
eros the life instinct and
thanatos the death instinct

Subculture of violence

norms and customs that in contrast to society's dominant value system, legitimize and expect the use of violence to resolve social conflicts

Substance abuse

Economic compulsive behaviour -inhibitor money to feed addiction,
psychopharmacological -violence may be a direct consequence of ingesting mood altering substances,
cognitive ability
systemic link-function of rival gangs, drug markets

Firearm availability

facilitating factor

rape and sexual assault

1983- rape replaced by sexual assault
the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will (with out voluntary consent

sexual assault

anything from unwanted touching to rape

Levels of sexual assault

level 1 sexual assault
level- 2 assault with a weapon or resulting in bodily harm
level 3 aggravated sexual assault

history of rape and sexual assault

15th century women was property
16th was changed
6% reported to police

sexual assault and the military

may 1998 McLean's magazine(sexual assault in Canadian military is wide spread
Greeks rape was socially acceptable in rules of warfare
crusades - knights and pilgrims took time to rape
war 2 the Japanese army farced 200 000 Korean women into front line brothel genocide rape was deliberately used to impregnate Bosnian women with serbian children

Gang rape

forcible sex involving multiple attackers

acquaintance rape

forcible sex in which offender and victim are acquainted with one another

date rape

forcible sex during a courting relationship

marital rape

forcible sex between people who are legally married to each other

statistics of rape

anger 40%
power 55%
sadistic rape 5%
1979(groth and birnbam

Marital exemption

traditional legal doctrine that a legally married husband could not be charged with raping his wife

sexual interference

touching the body of a person who is under 14 years of age for a sexual purpose

invitation to sexual touching

inviting counselling, or inciting someone under age 14 to touch the body of someone else for a sexual purpose

sexual exploitation

sexual contact even if consensual between a person aged 14 to 18 and someone in a position of trust or authority such as a minister, coach, employer, or teacher

shield laws

legislation that protects sexual assault victims from being questioned about their sexual history unless it bears directly on the case


intentional killing of another person recognized as having two classes first and second degree murder

First degree murder

the killing of another person that is planned and deliberate, law enforcement agent, related to committing another crime

Second degree murder

intentional killing of another person that is not first degree murder


first degree murder, second degree murder, manslaughter are infanticide. deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, and accidental or justifiable homicide are not included


homicide or the killing of another person by committing an unlawful act with only a general intent(speeding , giving a lethal punch, provoked brawl)


the killing of an infant shortly after birth by the mother because she is not fully recovered from the effects of giving birth

thrill killing

impulsive slaying of a stranger as an act of daring of recklessness

serial killer

one who skills a series of victims over a long period of time

mass murderer

one who kills many victims in a single violent outburst

Assault level 1

force, with intent and without consent, against another person or openly wearing a weapon impending another person

assault level 2

assault with a weapon threatening to use a weapon or assault causing bodily harm

Assault level 3

aggravated assault involving the wounding maiming disfiguring or endangering the life of another person

child abuse

violence, mistreatment or neglect that a child or adolescent may experience wile in the care of some one he or she either trusts or depends on

child neglect

failing to provide what a child needs for his or her physiological or emotional development and well being


taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat of force and or by putting the victim in fear


an offence of criminal harassment which is behavior that causes another person to fear for his or her safety

Hate crime

a violent act directed toward a particular person or group because of a discernible color race religion or ethnic origin

Thrill seeking hate crimes

sadistic thrill

reactive hate crimes

wrong race reactive hate crime

mission hate crime



the illegal use of force against innocent people to achieve a political objective

work place violence

job stress insensitive management style

political crimes

are committed when people believe that violence is the only means available to produce political change


the attempt by a government to wipe out a minority group within its jurisdiction

crusades eleventh century

peasants and downtrodden noblemen prey upon passing pilgrims

occasional criminals

offenders who do not define themselves by a criminal role or view themselves as committed career criminals

situational inducement

short term influence on a persons behavior such as financial problems or peer pressure that increases risk taking

professional criminals

offenders who make a significant portion of their income from crime


taking for ones own use the property of another, by means other then force or threats on the victim or forcibly breaking into a persons home or workplace

constructive possession

a legal fiction that applies to situations in which persons voluntarily give up physical custody of their property but still retain legal owner ship( jewelery store)

Theft under 5000

theft where the value of the property stolen dose not exceed 5000: treated as a hybrid offence for which a crown can proceed by why of summary conviction or indictment

theft over 5000

theft where the value of property stolen exceeds 5000 treated as an indictable offence


the taking of goods from retail stores


possessional shoplifter who steals with the intention of reselling stolen merchandise


receiver of stolen goods


amateur shoplifter who does not self identify as a thief but who systematically steals merchandise for personal use

arrest by owner of property

the right of the owner or designate to arrest without warrant anyone found committing a criminal offence on or in relation to the owners property

Target removal strategy

displaying dummy or disabled goods as a means of preventing shoplifting

target hardening strategy

locking goods into place or using electronic tags and sensing devices as means of preventing shoplifting

Types of motor vehicle theft

joyriding-to experience the benefits
short term transportation-go form one place to another
long-term transportation-keep the car for personal use
profit-monetary gain
commission of another crime-to use in other crimes

false pretenses

misrepresenting a fact in a way that causes a deceived victim to give money or property to the offenders


use of deceit or falsehood, whether or not it is a false pretense to obtain property money or other valuables from a person or the public

Naive cheque forgers

amateurs who cash bad cheques because of some financial crisis but have little identification with a criminal subculture

Systematic forgers

professionals who make a living by passing bad cheques

confidence game

a swindle, usually involving a get rich quick scheme often with illegal overtones so that the victim will be afraid or embarrassed to call the police

embezzlement(breach of trust)

taking and keeping the property of others, such as clients or employers with which one has been entrusted

Burglary(break and enter)

breaking into and entering a place with the intent to commit an indictable offence


the intentional or reckless damage by fire or explosion to property

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