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culture-bound syndrome found in India in which men develop intense fears about losing semen
framework for understanding abnormal behavior patterns as symptoms of underlying physical disorders or diseases
integrative model for explaining abnormal behavior patterns in terms of the interactions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
type of biopsychosocial model that relates the development of disorders to the combination of a diathesis, or predisposition, usually genetic in origin, and exposure to stressful events or life circumstances
abnormal behavior patterns characterized by disturbances in behavior, thinking, perceptions, or emotions that are associated with significant personal distress or impaired functioning
class of psychological disorders characterized by excessive or inappropriate anxiety reactions
type of anxiety disorder involving repeated episodes of sheer terror called panic attacks
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
type of anxiety disorder involving persistent and generalized anxiety and worry
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
type of anxiety disorder involving the repeated occurrence of obsessions and/or compulsions
fear of fear, involving excessive concern that anxiety symptoms will spin out of control
class of psychological disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self-identity
class of psychological disorders involving physical ailments or complaints that cannot be explained by organic causes
Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
type of dissociative disorder characterized by the appearance of multiple personalities in the same individual
type of somatoform disorder characterized by change or loss of a physical function that cannot be explained by medical causes
somatoform disorder in which there is excessive concern that one's physical complaints are signs of underlying serious illness
reward value of having a psychological or physical symptom, such as release from ordinary responsibilities
class of psychological disorders involving disturbances in mood states, such as major depression and bipolar disorder
Major depressive disorder
most common type of depressive disorder, characterized by periods of downcast mood, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in pleasurable activities
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
type of major depression that involves a recurring pattern of winter depressions followed by elevations of mood in the spring and summer
type of mood disorder characterized by mood swings from extreme elation to severe depression
mood disorder characterized by a chronic pattern of relatively mild mood swings
Learned helplessness model
View that depression results from the perception of a lack of control over the reinforcements in one's life that may result from exposure to uncontrollable negative events
Depressive attributional style
characteristic way of explaining negative events in terms of internal, stable, and global causes
removal of normal restraints or inhibitions that serve to keep impulsive behavior in check
severe and chronic psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, and behavior
breakdown in the logical structure of thought and speech, revealed in the form of a loosening of associations
symptoms of schizophrenia involving behavioral excesses, such as hallucinations and delusions
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by confused behavior and disorganized delusions, among other features
feature of catatonic schizophrenia in which people rigidly maintain the body position or posture in which they are placed by others
most common subtype of schizophrenia, characterized by the appearance of delusional thinking accompanied by frequent auditory hallucinations
class of psychological disorders characterized by rigid personality traits that impair people's ability to adjust to the demands they face in the environment and that interfere with their relationships with others
Narcissistic personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by a grandiose sense of self
Paranoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others
Schizoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by social aloofness and limited range of emotional expression
Borderline personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by unstable emotions and self-image
Antisocial personality disorder (APD)
type of personality disorder characterized by callous attitudes toward others and by antisocial and irresponsible behavior
tedency to blame or criticize yourself for disappointments or setbacks while ignoring external circumstances
Misplaced blame example
Do you automatically assume when things don't go as planned it's your fault?
Misfortune telling example
If you get a rejection letter from a job you applied for, do you assume that all the other applications you sent will meet a similar fate?
Negative focusing example
When you get a job evaluation, do you overlook the praise and focus only on the criticism?
Dismissing the positives
snatchign defeat from the jaws of victory by trivializing or denying your accomplishments; minimizing your strengths or assets
Dismissing the positives example
When someone compliments you, do you find some way of dismissing it by saying something like 'It's no big deal' or 'Anyone could have done it'?
exaggerating the importance of negative events or personal flaws (making mountains of molehills)
Do you react to a disappointing grade on a particular examination as though your whole life is ruined?
reasoning based on your emotions rather than on a clear-headed evaluation of the available evidence
Emotion-based reasoning example
Do you think that things are really hopeless because it feels that way?
placing unrealistic demands on yourself that you should or must accomplish certain tasks or reach certain goals
attaching negative labels to yourself or others as a way of explaining your own or others' behavior
Name calling example
Do you label yourself as lazy or stupid when you fall short of reaching your goals?
Mistaken responsibility example
Do you automatically assume that your partner is depressed or upset because of something you said or did?
Myth: people who threaten suicide are only seeking attention
Not so. Researchers report most people who commit suicide gave prior indications of their intentions or consulted a health provider beforehand
Myth: a person must be insane to attempt suicide
most people may feel hopeless or out of touch with reality, but they're not 'insane'
Myth: talking about suicide with a depressed person may prompt the person to attempt it
An open suicide discussion with a depressed person doesn't prompt the person to attempt it. In fact, extracting a promise that the person won't attempt suicide before calling or visiting a mental health worker may prevent suicide
Myth: people who attempt suicide and fail aren't serious about killing themselves
most people who commit suicide have made previous unsuccessful attempts
Myth: if someone threatens suicide, it's best to ignore it so as not to encourage repeated threats
though some people do manipulate others by making idle threats, it is prudent to treat every suicidal threat as genuine and to take appropriate action
Axis 1 - clinical disorders/other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
mental disorders that impair functioning/problems that may warrant attenion but don't represent diagnosable mental disorders
Axis 2 - personality disorders/mental retardation
class of mental disorders characterized by ways of relating to others and adjusting to external demands/generalized delay or impairment in intellectual development
Axis 3 - general medical conditions
illnesses and other medical conditions that may be important to the understanding or treatment of the person's psychological disorder
Axis 4 - psychosocial and environmental problems
problems in the person's social or physical environment that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of mental disorders
Axis 5 - global assessment of functioning
overall judgement of the person's level of functioning in meeting the responsibilities of daily life
social ills contributing to the development of abnormal behavior, such as poverty, racism, and prolonged unemployment; relationships between abnormal behavior and ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic level
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