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Psychological Disorders

Vocab on abnormal behaviors, anxiety disorders, dissociative and somatoform disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and personality disorders
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Hallucinations
perceptions experienced in the absence of external stimuli
Delusions
fixed but patently false beliefs, such as believing that one is being hounded by demons
Culture-bound syndromes
psychological disorders found in only one or a few cultures
Dhat syndrome
culture-bound syndrome found in India in which men develop intense fears about losing semen
Medical model
framework for understanding abnormal behavior patterns as symptoms of underlying physical disorders or diseases
Biopsychosocial model
integrative model for explaining abnormal behavior patterns in terms of the interactions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
Diathesis-stress model
type of biopsychosocial model that relates the development of disorders to the combination of a diathesis, or predisposition, usually genetic in origin, and exposure to stressful events or life circumstances
Diathesis
vulnerability or predisposition to developing a disorder
Psychological disorders
abnormal behavior patterns characterized by disturbances in behavior, thinking, perceptions, or emotions that are associated with significant personal distress or impaired functioning
Anxiety disorders
class of psychological disorders characterized by excessive or inappropriate anxiety reactions
Phobias
excessive fears of particular objects or situations
Social phobis
type of anxiety disorder involving excessive fear of social situations
Specific phobia
phobic reactions involving specific situations or objects
Acrophobia
excessive fear of heights
Claustrophobia
excessive fear of enclosed spaces
Agoraphobia
excessive, irrational fear of being in public spaces
Panic disorder
type of anxiety disorder involving repeated episodes of sheer terror called panic attacks
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
type of anxiety disorder involving persistent and generalized anxiety and worry
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
type of anxiety disorder involving the repeated occurrence of obsessions and/or compulsions
Anxiety sensitivity
fear of fear, involving excessive concern that anxiety symptoms will spin out of control
Dissociative disorders
class of psychological disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self-identity
Somatoform disorders
class of psychological disorders involving physical ailments or complaints that cannot be explained by organic causes
Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
type of dissociative disorder characterized by the appearance of multiple personalities in the same individual
Conversion disorder
type of somatoform disorder characterized by change or loss of a physical function that cannot be explained by medical causes
Hypochondriasis
somatoform disorder in which there is excessive concern that one's physical complaints are signs of underlying serious illness
Secondary gain
reward value of having a psychological or physical symptom, such as release from ordinary responsibilities
Mood disorders
class of psychological disorders involving disturbances in mood states, such as major depression and bipolar disorder
Major depressive disorder
most common type of depressive disorder, characterized by periods of downcast mood, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in pleasurable activities
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
type of major depression that involves a recurring pattern of winter depressions followed by elevations of mood in the spring and summer
Dysthymic disorder
type of psychological disorder characterized by mild but chronic depression
Bipolar disorder
type of mood disorder characterized by mood swings from extreme elation to severe depression
Manic episodes
periods of mania, or unusually elevated mood and extreme restlessness
Cyclothymic disorder
mood disorder characterized by a chronic pattern of relatively mild mood swings
Learned helplessness model
View that depression results from the perception of a lack of control over the reinforcements in one's life that may result from exposure to uncontrollable negative events
Attributional style
person's characteristic way of explaining outcomes of events in his or her life
Depressive attributional style
characteristic way of explaining negative events in terms of internal, stable, and global causes
Disinhibition effect
removal of normal restraints or inhibitions that serve to keep impulsive behavior in check
Schizophrenia
severe and chronic psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, and behavior
Psychotic disorder
psychological disorder characterized by a 'break' with reality
Thought disorder
breakdown in the logical structure of thought and speech, revealed in the form of a loosening of associations
Positive symptoms
symptoms of schizophrenia involving behavioral excesses, such as hallucinations and delusions
Negative symptoms
behavioral deficits associated with schizophrenia, such as withdrawl and apathy
Disorganized type
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by confused behavior and disorganized delusions, among other features
Catatonic type
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by bizarre movements, postures, or grimaces
Waxy flexibility
feature of catatonic schizophrenia in which people rigidly maintain the body position or posture in which they are placed by others
Paranoid type
most common subtype of schizophrenia, characterized by the appearance of delusional thinking accompanied by frequent auditory hallucinations
Personality disorders
class of psychological disorders characterized by rigid personality traits that impair people's ability to adjust to the demands they face in the environment and that interfere with their relationships with others
Narcissistic personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by a grandiose sense of self
Paranoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others
Schizoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by social aloofness and limited range of emotional expression
Borderline personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by unstable emotions and self-image
Antisocial personality disorder (APD)
type of personality disorder characterized by callous attitudes toward others and by antisocial and irresponsible behavior
All-or-nothing thinking
viewing events in black or white terms, as either all good or all bad
All-or-nothing thinking example
Do you view an ended relationship as a total failure?
Misplaced blame
tedency to blame or criticize yourself for disappointments or setbacks while ignoring external circumstances
Misplaced blame example
Do you automatically assume when things don't go as planned it's your fault?
Misfortune telling
tendency to think that one disappointment will inevitably lead to another
Misfortune telling example
If you get a rejection letter from a job you applied for, do you assume that all the other applications you sent will meet a similar fate?
Negative focusing
focusng your attention only on the negative aspects of your experiences
Negative focusing example
When you get a job evaluation, do you overlook the praise and focus only on the criticism?
Dismissing the positives
snatchign defeat from the jaws of victory by trivializing or denying your accomplishments; minimizing your strengths or assets
Dismissing the positives example
When someone compliments you, do you find some way of dismissing it by saying something like 'It's no big deal' or 'Anyone could have done it'?
Jumping to conclusions
drawing a conclusion that isn't supported by the facts at hand
Jumping to conclusions example
Do you usually or always expect the worst to happen?
Catastrophizing
exaggerating the importance of negative events or personal flaws (making mountains of molehills)
Catastrophizing example
Do you react to a disappointing grade on a particular examination as though your whole life is ruined?
Emotion-based reasoning
reasoning based on your emotions rather than on a clear-headed evaluation of the available evidence
Emotion-based reasoning example
Do you think that things are really hopeless because it feels that way?
Shouldisms
placing unrealistic demands on yourself that you should or must accomplish certain tasks or reach certain goals
Shouldisms example
Do you feel you should be further along in life than you are?
Name calling
attaching negative labels to yourself or others as a way of explaining your own or others' behavior
Name calling example
Do you label yourself as lazy or stupid when you fall short of reaching your goals?
Mistaken responsibility
assuming that you're the cause of other people's problems
Mistaken responsibility example
Do you automatically assume that your partner is depressed or upset because of something you said or did?
Myth: people who threaten suicide are only seeking attention
Not so. Researchers report most people who commit suicide gave prior indications of their intentions or consulted a health provider beforehand
Myth: a person must be insane to attempt suicide
most people may feel hopeless or out of touch with reality, but they're not 'insane'
Myth: talking about suicide with a depressed person may prompt the person to attempt it
An open suicide discussion with a depressed person doesn't prompt the person to attempt it. In fact, extracting a promise that the person won't attempt suicide before calling or visiting a mental health worker may prevent suicide
Myth: people who attempt suicide and fail aren't serious about killing themselves
most people who commit suicide have made previous unsuccessful attempts
Myth: if someone threatens suicide, it's best to ignore it so as not to encourage repeated threats
though some people do manipulate others by making idle threats, it is prudent to treat every suicidal threat as genuine and to take appropriate action
Axis 1 - clinical disorders/other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
mental disorders that impair functioning/problems that may warrant attenion but don't represent diagnosable mental disorders
Axis 2 - personality disorders/mental retardation
class of mental disorders characterized by ways of relating to others and adjusting to external demands/generalized delay or impairment in intellectual development
Axis 3 - general medical conditions
illnesses and other medical conditions that may be important to the understanding or treatment of the person's psychological disorder
Axis 4 - psychosocial and environmental problems
problems in the person's social or physical environment that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of mental disorders
Axis 5 - global assessment of functioning
overall judgement of the person's level of functioning in meeting the responsibilities of daily life
Medical model
biological underpinnings of abnormal behavior
Psychodynamic model
unconscious conflicts and motives underlying abnormal behavior
Behavioral model
learning experiences that shape the development of abnormal behavior
Humanistic model
roadblocks that hinder self-awareness and self-acceptance
Cognitive model
faulty thinking underlying abnormal behavior
Sociocultural model
social ills contributing to the development of abnormal behavior, such as poverty, racism, and prolonged unemployment; relationships between abnormal behavior and ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic level
Biopsychosocial model
interactions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors in the development of abnormal behavior