________ - a grouping of plants, animals, etc. interacting with each other and their environment.
In Ecology, ___________ refers to one species or group of species gradually being replaced by other.
Lawns (Grass/Sod) > Turfgrass Lawns are a mono culture Forests, Natural Grasslands represent ____________.
shift in land converted large land areas to Turfgrass Lawns
Forest and Prairie ecosystems present (before the arrival of the Europeans in North America) were largely cleared for Agricultural land use. With "Suburbanization" (Urban Sprawl) of much U.S. land during the 20th century, a profound (Noticeable)
- ________: ecosystems having similar vegetation and climactic conditions.
- Ecosystem properties : -
Productivity (Producers - plants)
1) We remain dependent on Natural Ecosystems for their Role in providing clean Air (wetland) and clean water.
2) They provide important examples of how humans can manage area to achieve sustainability.
3) Natural ecosystems provide a context for humans as individuals to appreciate their environment.
The study of "Natural Ecosystems" is important because:- __________
1) abiotic factors
2) biotic factors
3) human influences
Sustainability of ecosystems depends on maintenance of a balance of :
Bare Soil (many succession) > Grasses >Shrubs > conifers (Pine tree) > Deciduous trees.
In relation to a temperate deciduous forest, a typical example of Ecological Succession would be: ________
________ - typically refers to the process of soils being washed away by water or blown away by the wind.
deserts is water
Limiting factor which is responsible for the transitions from forest to grasslands to deserts is ________.
Limiting factor which is responsible for the transitions from forest, to Grassland, and ________.
the Destruction of Natural Ecosystems
Ecosystem Management - The study of Ecology and "Natural Ecosystems" reveals that we are not managing our human ecosystem in ecologically sound ways and we may be adversely (negatively impact) affected by __________.
Ecosystem Plants > Producers Green Plants obtain their energy from SUNLIGHT
Our body's energy comes directly from food, _______.
they are typically weed-resistant and fire-resistant
Ecosystem restoration must be well-planned.
Ecosystem restoration efforts not well-planned can occur when Non-Native Species are used to re-plant degraded areas because _______.
Biodiversity Field Prairies in degraded area
___________ : Plant - Native Species Indian Grass, Bluestem grass, goldenrods, asters, blazing stars, birds food violet, etc.
Compared to Rates of change which occur in Natural human Induced changes tend to be __________!
In Central U.S. (IL, IN etc including Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska) the major "Natural" ecosystem was ________.
grass > tall weeds, pine tree > Hard woods
Much of central Maryland, (which used to be deciduous forest) is now agricultural land.
Assuming the soil has remained fertile, if a section of Farmland is a abandoned the forest will eventually come back through a series of stages. These stage would be : ___________
1) Soil Formation (17 trillion dollars per year)
2) Nutrient cycling (2.3 billion dollar per year)
3) Water Regulation and supply (2.3 trillion dollar per year)
4) Climate Regulation (1.8 trillion dollar per year)
In 1997, Economist Robert Constanza and his colleagues published a paper in the journal "Nature" which estimated the value ecosystems provide making Human Life possible on Earth. These value of ecosystems called services include:
where MVCC is located
There are currently large scale ecological restoration projects underway in the Great Lake Region of the U.S., ____________.
the forest's ability to Regenerate (Reproduce and reach a certain Level of growth)
Goal of Forest conservation is to Manage the harvest of trees based on ___________.
Human beings will need to pay actual money for the services which functioning ecosystems provide for us now for Free.
In summary, if human choices and human actions result in Earth's Ecosystems suffering Degradation (Deterioration) to a point of Ecosystem Disfunction ___________
1) Conserve Biodiversity
2) Moderate Regional Climates
3) Store Carbon (organic Carbon) cellulose - plants material based on carbon units.
4) Prevents Erosion (since plants retain soil and water)
Forest typically provide the following vital Natural services :
Sustainable Timber Production (manage the rate of cutting down trees)
Another goal of Sustainable forestry is ____________.
an unsustainable use of forest areas.
It follows that clear-cutting (Harvesting) trees at short intervals to maximize yield would be _______________.
1) Maintaining Biodiversity of Aquatic species in Freshwater ecosystems
2) Maintaining the highest concentrations of wetland ecosystems in the U.S.
3) Maintaining the highest concentrations of Tree Species Diversity in North America.
Forest in the Southern U.S. experience increased pressures from human logging activities. Protection of these forest provide the following: ______________.
1) Forest Ecosystem Health must be maintained
2) The health and quality of nearby water systems must be a top priority
Forest can provide for human needs if the idea of sustainability is practical and the following principles are realized accordingly:______________.
the Long-Leaf Pine Tree.
Southern U.S. of trees species that exist in the Forest would be ___________.
Plant and Animal Species
In the U.S. forest in the Southern Regions and also the Northern Regions are referred to as "Old Forest". Those forest provide a "Natural Habitat" for endangered species and support a rich diversity of _____________.
1) Clear-cutting is the preferred method of harvest used by Canadian logging companies
2) Therefore, trees are harvested faster than new trees can grow to replace old ones that were cut down
3) The wood harvested in Canadian Boreal Forest is driven (Fueled) by consumer demand for wood in the U.S. In addition, the U.S. is the primary consumer with respect to other Nations for the wood and other products produced from the forest.
With respect to Canadian Boreal Forest, unsustainable practices and lack of stewardship has resulted in the following actions: ____________
1) They are located at Polar latitudes and high elevations.
2) Permanently frozen soil (or Permafrost) stores huge quantities of Methane (Global warming gas)
3) Their soils are Poor in Nutrients
4) Hardy species of Spruce and Fir (Evergreen trees) are the Dominant Species
Boreal Forest (Canada & Russia) :____________.
Increased Global change (typical attributed to change in the Global Carbon Cycle)
Deforestation rates around the globe (earth) (Examples are Russian Boreal Forest and Amazon Rainforest) are causing great concern with respect to Ecological impacts such as ____
they are a major source of Income and International Trade
With respect to deforestation in Developing countries, the real economic value of forest is that _______.
1) warming and advice seem hypocritical when coming from Nations that have cut most of their own trees.
2) Harvesting forest is an irresistible solution to Poverty.
3) Harvested wood and cleared land are immediately useful and therefore in demand.
Efforts of Developed countries (U.S. Russian, Great Britain, France, Germany) to get developing countries (Brazil, Kenya etc) to protect their forests are difficult for the following reasons: _______
do not contain soils of high fertility with regard to plant growth
Typically, tropical Rainforest Ecosystems ________.
in Plant Biomes
The greatest concentration of Nutrients in a tropical Rainforest is usually found______ .
more susceptible to Erosion and Mineralization.
Generally, in contrast to temperate zone Grasslands, Tropical soils are _______.
there is less erosion of the soils
Area covered by forest produce the least amount of sediments in surface water since _______.
low numbers of humans on the plant
Humanity's impact on Earth Ecosystems was minimal in the Ancient past due to ______.
they practical Hunter-Gatherer behaviors, their impact was small due to Darwinian Natural Process
In addition, humans typically had a Nomadic lifestyle, and even though _______.
dipicted (explained) by exploit, Ruin, and move on
According to Environment Philosopher "Garett Hardin" current human post-hunter-gatherer lifestyles can be _____.
for human consumption often called or referred to as "Bush Meat"
One of the main concerns in African Tropical Rainforest, is illegal killing of endangered animal species, (Including Primates)
1) Economic Greed
3) Human Insensitivity
4) Human Pride
Assumption: Generally, the overuse of certain would life species is driven by the following: -
because of Reduction in water and Nutrient - Holding capacity due to erosion of clay and Humus
Desertification - a productive land losing its ability to support plant growth ________.
both developed and less developed countries
Area affected by desertification includes millions of acres throughout _____.
increasing irrigation and water uses leads to greater Desertification
Desertification / Agriculture
With respect to agriculture in desert Regions, ______.
the addition on "Inorganic Fertilizers" to the Agricultural Areas
The major source of minerals that cause "Soil Salinization" is ____.
does not reduce Erosion in these areas
Erosion of Soils typically lead to Desertification. Agricultural "Deep Plowing" _____.
overgrazing by livestock
In many regions of the world, deserts are expanding (spreading) due to ______.
to increase the amount of land devoted to livestock
Therefore, it is not a goal of sustainable agriculture _______ .
reduced by "No-Till Planting"
Soil disturbance from "cultivation" (agriculture) leading to desert areas can be ______.
Concrete surfaces cause the Runoff of rainwater, however, the runoff itself is not regarded as an Ecological Impact.
"Ecological Impacts" often result from the replacement of Forest Areas with Suburban Housing, paved roads, and commercial development._______