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35 terms

Endocrine System

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acromegaly
enlargement of bones of hands and feet and face; results from an oversecretion of growth hormone in an adult and is usually caused by a benign tumor of the pituitary gland
giantism
abnormal increase of growth in size and stature; results from an oversecretion of growth hormone before puberty
diabetes insipidus
antidiuretic hormone is not secreted adequately, or the kidney is resistant to its effect;
dwarfism
Condition caused by insufficient growth hormone in childhood
goiter
abnormally enlarged thyroid gland
hyperthyroidism
an overactive thyroid gland, which causes increased production of thyroid hormones and increased basal metabolic rate
Graves' disease
disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos
hypothyroidism
an underactive thyroid gland
hyperparathyroidism
Abnormal increase in the activity of the parathyroids
hypoparathyroidism
deficient production of parathyroid hormone.
Addison's disease
occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone
Cushing's syndrome
hypersecretion of glucocorticoids; caused by oversecretion of ACTH or tumor on adrenal cortex
diabetes mellitus
a chronic disease caused by decrease secretion of insulin
adrenal feminization
development of female secondary sexual characteristic in a male, often as a result of increased estrogen secretion by the adrenal cortex
adrenal virilism
development of male secondary sexual characteristics in a female, often as a result of increased androgen secretion by the adrenal cortex
pheochromocytoma
usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine
diabetic retinopathy
secondary complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels of the retina, resulting in visual changes and even blindness
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
also called type 1 diabetes; develops early in life when the pancreas stops insulin production
insulinoma
tumor of the islets of Langerhans cells of the pancreas that secretes an excessive amount of insulin
ketoacidosis
acidosis due to an excess of acidic ketone bodies; a serious condition requiring immediate treatment that can result in death for the diabetic patient if not reversed
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
also called type 2 diabetes; typically develops later in life; the pancreas produces normal to high levels of insulin, but the cells fail to respond to it
peripheral neuropathy
damage to the nerves in the lower legs and hands as a result of diabetes mellitus
tetany
nerve irritability and painful muscle cramps resulting from hypocalcemia
Recklinghausen disease
excessive production of parathyroid hormone, which results in degeneration of the bones
panhypopituitarism
deficiency in all the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland
cretinism
congenital condition in which a lack of thyroid hormones may result in arrested physical and mental development
Hashimoto's disease
chronic autoimmune form of thyroiditis, results in hyposecretion of thyroid hormones
myxedema
condition resulting from a hyposecretion of the thyroid gland in an adult
thyroidoxicosis
condition resulting from marked overproduction of the thyroid gland
adenocarcinoma
cancerous tumor in a gland that is capable of producing the hormones secreted by that gland
cortisol, aldosterone, androgen, estrogen, progesterone
hormones of the adrenal cortex
epinephrine, norephinephrine
hormones of the adrenal medulla
estrogen, progesterone
hormones of the ovaries
glucagon, insulin
hormones of the pancreas
parathyroid hormone PTH
parathyroid glands hormone