US Government Chapter 1 Assessment

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A state is a group of people living in a defined territory, organized with a governing body and the power to make laws without consent of a higher authority.What characteristics define a state?Force theory-one group of people or group forced other to submit to its rule; Evolutionary theory- says that the state evolved from an original family. The divine right theory-says that God created the state and gave its rulers the right to rule.Briefly describe the four most widely held theories that attempt to explain the origin of the state.The Social Contract TheoryWhat theory on the origin of the state was most influential in the founding of the United States?To form strong unions, to establish justice, to ensure peace and avoid anarchy, provide defense against foreign enemies, to promote general welfare, and ensure personal libertyFor what reasons do people form governments?To form strong unions, to establish justice, to ensure peace and avoid anarchy, provide defense against foreign enemies, to promote general welfare, and ensure personal libertyDescribe the purpose of government set out in the Preamble to the Constitution.Who may participate in governing? Where is the geographic distribution of power in the state? What is the relationship between the legislative and executive branches?List the three questions that can be used to classify government.(a) the people (b) no one; in a dictatorship the person in power has the final authority.(a) In a democracy, to whom is the government responsible? (b) In a dictatorship, to whom is the government responsible?In an autocracy a single person holds power while in a oligarchy a small group holds the power.What is the difference between an autocracy and an oligarchy?Unitary- a centralized government with the central agency controlling all governmental powers. Federal- the powers of government are divided between a central government and local governments. Confederate- an alliance of independent states with a central organization carrying out powers the states give it.Name and briefly describe the three forms of government that can result depending on how governmental power is distributed geographically.The two branches, executive and legislative, are separate and serve to check and balance each other.Explain how power is distributed in a presidential government.1. Worth of the individual 2. Equality of all people 3. Rule by the majority but with equal rights for the minority 4. Necessity of compromise 5. Protection of individual freedomBriefly describe the five basic concepts of democracy.Equality of conditions means that no be can be discriminated against on the basis of race, color, religion or gender; equality of opportunity means that each group of person is free to develop as he or she can or wants to.What is the difference between equality of opportunity and equality of condition?Individuals are free to do as they please as long as the rights of society as whole are not compromised.Describe the relationship between the rights of the individual and the rights of the overall society.(a) an economic system characterized by private ownership of goods and private investment, with profit and competition determined by a free market. (b) In the American economy, private enterprise is combined with government regulation and participation(a) what is the free enterprise system? (b) how does it differ from a mixed economy?Benefits include a wealth of knowledge at your fingertips and it's easy to use. Drawbacks include lack of regulation and difficulty determining accuracy.List one benefit and one drawback of using the Internet for research.