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The most abundant plasma protein is _______.


Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called _______.

There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.

Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?


Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.


Which organ does not have hormone production?


In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as _________.

is partly contained within the infundibulum

The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract ________________.

functions to increase sodium reabsorption

Aldosterone __________.

possible activation of several different second-messenger systems

Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include ________.

low blood viscosity

All of the following can be expected with polycythemia EXCEPT ________.

is inhibited by alcohol

ADH _________.

maintenance of normal pH in body tissues

Which of the following is a regulatory function of blood?

It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.

Thyroxine is a peptide hormone but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormons. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?


Which of the following is not a phase of hemostasis?

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ___________.

entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene.

Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.

production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty.

Gonadocorticoid(s) _______________.

They are nucleated.

Which of the following is a characteristic of all leukocytes?


Eicosanoids do NOT include ______.


The shelf life of whole collected blood at 4° C is about ____ days.


Which blood type is called the universal donor?


What is the average normal pH of blood?

It is about 90% water.

Which of the following is true about blood plasma?

entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei.

Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by ________.

it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is NOT a true endocrine gland because ________.

the heart

Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?

promotes long bone growth during the formative years.

Growth hormone _______.

maintenance of body temperature.

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.


What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break.

Platelets _______.


Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to _______.


Leptin is secreted by _______.

Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.

Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?


Together, leukocytes and platelets comprise approximately ______ percent of total blood volume.


Blood is a _______.

hypophyseal portal system

Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary glad is through the _________.

thymus gland

Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the _______.


When neither anti-A nor anti-B clots on a blood plate, the blood is type ____.

humoral stimulation

One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?


No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in _______.

targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released

The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.

second messengers

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular _______.


Which of the following is NOT a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged.

As red blood cells age _______.


Which of the following is NOT a steroid-based hormone?


When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is _________.

first enter into the hypophyseal portal system

Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ________.

release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

Oxytocin __________.

increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure

Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by ________.

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