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ENGL 2250 Glossary Terms, LIT FINAL 2250
Terms in this set (173)
characterized by struggling or strife, often combative
the use of characters or events to represent ideas or principles in art
a brief, witty, memorable statement purporting a truth
a Protestant doctrine promoting salvation through grace rather than works and the idea of predestination
to make anything into a sale-able object
geographic dispersion of an originally homogenous people
intended to instruct
irregular poetic speech of wild enthusiasm
poem of lament for a deceased person
background material in a play supplied through dialog
poetic form of ten syllable lines with alternating unstressed and then stressed syllables
a prolonged lamentation or complaint; often cautionary
figure of speech in which a word or phrase implicitly compares two things
the traditions and features unique to purely verbal story telling
the repeated use of conjunctions for rhetorical effect
Puritan Work Ethic
belief that a person's duty is to work hard and save
reduction ab absurdum
disproof of a proposition by proposing the absurdity go its inevitable conclusion
attempts by marginalized groups to police their own members and show their social values as continuous and compatible with mainstream values rather than challenging the main stream for its failure to accept difference
literature that attacks vices through irony or ridicule
figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared using the words like or as
purposeful development to some designed end
government of a state by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided
a doctrine of theological types; especially holding that things in Christian belief are prefigured or symbolized by things in the Old Testament
the "spirit of the times" the prevailing cultural assumptions of a specific era
Which of the following was not among the resources Columbus described in the "New World"?
Rowlandson's and de Vaca's works are most properly categorized as:
In his sermon "A Moddell of Christian Charity," Winthrop famously describes their new colony as
A City upon a Hill
Bradford figuratively represents himself and his fellow colonists as
the Wandering Israelites
In the Seneca "Origin of Folk Stories," whom does grandfather cliff/rock share his folk stories with?
In an iconic scene, young Ben Franklin buys hat for himself after he lands ashore in Philadelphia for the first time?
In thinking of herself as a latter day Job, Rowlandson is engaged in what kind of thinking?
The Puritan belief in pre-destination shows the influence of
Before replacing it with the phrase "pursuit of happiness," what had the declaration committee originally thought of people pursuing?
"O, ye nominal Christians! Might not an African ask you, learned you from this your God...." Text?
The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano
The American Declaration of Independence is a legalistic political document based in large part on the contemporary Enlightenment theory of the _________ ______________ propounded by political philosophers including John Locke, Thomas Hobbs, and Jeans- Jacques Rousseau.
Describing one leg of the Triangle Trade, the horrific journey of West Africans to North American is usually referred to as the
The first ten amendments to the US Constitution are collectively referred to as the
Bill of Rights
The hierarchical ordering of all metaphysical and physical existence is called the
Great Chain of Being
What is the Rationalistic belief in a divine created of a perfect universe in no need of divine intervention?
Ben Franklin was sent as ambassador to ________ to seek aid for the American Revolution.
In addition to slowly increasing wealth and literature, increasing _______ also created a market for reading material in the late 18th and early 19th century America.
When he arrives in Virgina, John Smith discovered he had been named the leader of a colony called:
The broadly defined set of ideas shared by many people over one or several generations is sometimes referred to by the German Term:
Which parts of this Declaration are addressed to women themselves, urging them to change their attitudes and circumstances?
The second and final paragraph addresses women. It calls for them to resist or oppose the government that oppresses them, to petition , circulate tracts, and be ready to face ridicule from people opposing them.
Why is written language so essential to the shaping of hearts and minds?
written word seems to have more authority than oral word. Less likely to change. Having a written record is more likely to change people in the future. Easy way to influence each other over time and distance. Written text you can go back to as long as it exist.
How is the Declaration of Sentiments an amplification of the American Declaration of Independence?
be rephrasing key points to resemble the original it points out the omissions and hypocrisy while paying attribute to the original.
How is it an extension of Enlightenment?
Due to the enlightenment, it was thought that society could improve itself through rational change. The DoS was an extension of that idea because women are rationally using their own thoughts and ideas about what their roles in society should be to resist the previous ways of society.
Which of the injustices listed in the Declaration at Seneca Falls still are relevant today? Has society overcome these injustices, or is there still more progress to be made? why/why not?
most of the points made in the DoS are backed up by the law. like women can vote now and have property rights. Men still acquire higher positions in the work place. Men still make more money (wage gap).
what did it mean to be a woman in the 19th century?
-no vote -subject to laws w/o rep -curtailed civil liberties - civil "death" of a married woman - occupational boundaries -extremely limited access to higher education -double moral standard -learned dependence
to treat that person as if they are a child (i.e. women being looked over by men)
When talking about "man" and nature or the universe, in what ways is Emerson apparently different from the New England Puritans two centuries earlier?
Emerson said to "know thyself" and "study nature" are congruent. People who are with nature are closer to God. Where as the Puritans felt as if nature was against humans.
List the 3 influences the Emerson describes affecting the American scholar and give examples. What are the 3 duties of this scholar?
Influences: 1-nature, 2-the past and books, and 3-the influence of action on the education of the thinking man. Duties: Develop on incredible amount of self trust, To endure self Sacrifice, Always preserve wisdom of the past.
Create 2 columns detailing how Emerson thinks books as tyrannizing & how he thinks of them as useful. What does this have to do with "man thinking"?
Useful: when the mind is braced by labor and invention, "history & exact science" learned through reading, "can only highly serve us when they aim not to drill but to create"
Tyrannizing: "books are written on it by thinkers not by man's thinking" taken from popular ideas not critical thinking, -guide is tyrant -believe & do what book says
What is Emerson's list of possible subjects of study for the American scholar? How might he see these as distinctly american at the time
Wants to focus the thinking in America to a more personal point of view. Common people and everyday life.
"The world is his who can see through its
pretension. What deafness, what stoneblind
custom, what overgrown error you
behold, is there only by sufferance,--by
your sufferance." What does Emerson mean in this quotation? What contemporary historical circumstances might he have been thinking? P. 819
You need to sift through all information thrown out in society to form your own opinions. Slavery and women's suffrage. If you don't let you conscious determine your explanation of slavery you may fall for the incorrect interpretation.
"Society everywhere is in conspiracy against the manhood of its members." p. 827 What does Emerson mean by this statement? How it could it be so? How can "manhood" be retained or regained?
Society tends to give us a lot of rules and traditions to follow. This is Emerson's way of saying that society tends to tell us that "you don't need to ask yourself if what you are doing is right or not because we are telling you that it is" through tradition or rules set forth by society. To get back your "manhood" you have to reconnect with your conscience and listen to what it says and to follow what it says
In the opening paragraph of "self-reliance," Emerson claims this as his theses. How could this possibly be an accurate claim? P.825
Dont be afraid to speak what is right from in your heart. Dont wait for someone else to say it. If you have your own thoughts then you are a genius and that is what the world's needs. Create your own ideas rather than imitate.
"God will not have his work made manifest by cowards." P.825 What is Emerson's point here?
God's manifest will be fulfilled by courageous people. He believes people should step forward for what is right. What makes them a coward is they dont want to put things at risk.
"Good and bad are but names very readily transferable to that or this; the only right is what is after my own constitution, the only wrong is whats against it "
What are the implications of this claim? How might Emerson defend his position to the New England Puritans two centuries before him? p. 827
Human language is imperfect. You can't just trust any authority to be absolutely correct. can only trust your conscience
On page 837-840, Emerson lists 4 obstacles to self-reliance. what are they and how are they obstacles?
(4) obstacles to self-reliance: 1. Organized religion/ uniform prayer 2. Desire to travel 3. Restlessness -> initiation 4. Society & men's desire to improve the population rather than the individual
Yellow- What would indicate that people are prepared for this?
They oppose those ideals but at the time of war people support the government. When people realize that individual power is more than a larger government people will take action.
"Law never made men a whit more just; and, by means of their respect for it, even the well-disposed are daily made the agents of injustice."
How do you suppose either of these linked propositions might be true? Can you give either historical or hypothetical examples?
Acting on your conscience not by the laws
"...the opponents to reform in Massachusetts
are not a hundred thousand politicians at the South, but a hundred thousand merchants and farmers here...."
What is Thoreau saying in this quotation and the passage it comes from?
More economically beneficial to them, a local problem. If youre not part of the solution then youre part of the problem.
Thoreau paraphrases Confucius from the philosopher's Analects when he writes, "Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison." What do you think of this aphorism?
If a just man does not stand with his fellow man he is not just. If you go along with and unjust government then you as well are unjust. Your conscious will tell you when you reach the point of willing to be imprisoned.
Separation of church?
I didnt ask to ba apart of this church. I was not born to be forced. Giving a church money should be by will not force.
What is the man with the walking stick saying here and how does it introduce a central theme in the story?
Main theme: no family is untouched by sin, everyone has a sense of deceit in them because no one is perfect, things may not be as them seem> people wear masks, ignorance is bliss, good can do bad things and vice versa
What is the narrator suggesting in lines like this? How is
Mans instict to survive can cause make actions not necessarily deemed as good.
Sin is a temptation as humans we are able to fight
What does a passage like this, in the context of the whole story, suggest about Hawthorne's thoughts on the subject?
"Everyone's a sinner even the priest (secretly) . sin is destructive not constructive within yourself. To appear to be wholly on the outside as a disguise. If you point out the sins of others it is easier to hid your own or portray your sins onto others."
Native americans- devilish Indians reside in heathen wilderness
Equal- people equal in sin
On page 1310, how are we informad that Hugh Wolfe is different from the other workers?
"Lost the strength of & instinct vigor of a man, muscles thin, nerves weak, weak woman's face", never went to cockpit, fought sometimes (more like Jelly), mended beautifully (gave him the excuse), not a typical manly man, tainted of education
Compare advantages Franklin had to those of Hugh and Wheatly.
Wheatly- Slavery, education, literary (literature appreciated)
Franklin- educated, started middle class, skills, positive outlook
Hugh- no skills besides smelting, are (but not appreciated), bleak outlook (driven to theft), poor health
Make a list of the reasons Hugh Wolfe is called a "girl-man" on page 1310. What does this say about gender definition in 19th century America?
Muscles thin, nerves weak, never seen in the cockpit, didn't drink much, didn't have a terrier, always lost fights, had a 'taint' of school learning in him, school ruined him for a good fight.
Had rigid stereotypes:
Men- drinkers, fighters, not educated, brutish, not skittish
Women- educated?, dainty, weak, sober
Is education a solution to poverty and prejudice?
Make education inclusive to everyone (women, disabled, minorities), opportunity to reach potential, reading and writing to gain and spread knowledge, oppressors can not oppress on the basis that a group is ignorant and unable (empower the oppressed)
On page 1178, the narrator describes one of Roderick's paintings. What does it appear to represent? What may it reveal about its artist and what does it add to the story?
-Tunnel, no light, no outlet, ghastly and inappropriate splendor
- symbolic to what was going to happen to his sister
What is Roderick Usher's state if mind and how is he trying to improve it?
Sensitive to light, touch and noise, superstitious to his home. Trying to improve it by inviting his friend to relieve his state of mind, play guitar (string instrument), reading, painting, writing
What is that poem in the middle of the story about if we read it allegorically?
About a nice palace, people singing, has a prince, and it falls . represents the mind of usher. Full of sensory things (smell, color) (things of the mind).
How does the narrator affect our opinions about the environment of the story? How does his environment appear to affect Roderick Usher?
The narrator describes the house as gloomy and dark. It portrays evil. It drives Usher to insanity
In the climactic scene, how do we explain the apparent return of Madeline?
It is possible that Madeline may not have actually been dead when she was buried. The house might have played a part in bringing her back to life. There is a theory that they may have been vampires.
"I had walked but a few paces when the consciousness of being free and alone struck me" p.1294 What is remarkable abiut Margaret Hull's observation? How does thia affect her observations of the space around her in that paragraph?
She was kept under her aunt's "control." she does everything to please her aunt. When she leaves to walk to church, she realises that she is alone and has the freedom to go somewhere other than church. She can see sights for herself. She finally has a moment to herself
"Every person's individuality was sacred to me, from the fact, perhaps, that my own individuality had never been respected by any person with whom I had any relation—not even my own mother." p. 1296
To put this statement in context, what changes are happening in American culture between the American Revolutionary and Civil wars? (Social, political, economic, religious, scientific perspectives should be considered.)
Womens suffrage, abolitionist movement, transcendentalism (individuality)
What are we to make of Margaret's epiphany at the end of the story. What does it suggest has happened? How does she feel about her husband?
She realised that she was being used. He would make more money if her married her and lost the case. Margaret is the only one who loses out. He never really loved her.
Why does Margaret's aunt say "it is only my part to see that she is, or is not, Cinderella"? Does this shed new light on why she asked Margaret to come with her newport.
The aunt is the fairy god mother, husband is the prince. Margaret is compared from cinderella because she comes from nothing and finds her husband (with money) The aunt probably plotted that he would "fall in love with her" (for the money and case). Both the aunt and husband are using Margaret.
What is your opinion of Aunt Eliza? Is she a woman negotiating her freedom in a patriarchal world? Is she a villain? To what extent can we attribute her actions, thus her accountability, to her alone and to what extent to her moral?
Controlling, sneaky, selfish, her morals were twisted but in her environment she was doing things a man would usually do (controlling money/ Margaret). Plans to set up Margaret and Mr. uxbridge. Dresses her up and runs into Uxbridge whenever they are out. He isnt taking the bait until the 60,000$ comes in She talks down to Margaret.
Find evidence in the text that helps us understand the character of the narrator, especially as regards his views toward Bartleby.
Had pity towards Bartleby. Profound sense of responsibility. He should have fired him towards the beginning of the story, he obviously has more patience
Discuss in what ways the metaphor of the wall is present in the story. What might be the significance of this persistent image or idea?
The Wall- Wall serves the purpose to disconnect people, Folded wall in lawyers office, Public vs Private life -> the wall hids people
On page 1246, the narrator shares his thoughts about charity. What does he have to say about it? Is he a charitable man? What might his motives be for behaving charitably?
He recognizes some people have alternative motives and people have hardships. He believes his is doing the right thing but also might not be able to to the best thing (fire Bartleby)
Does the story of Bartleby suggest anything about transcendence, self-reliance, or conscious? How might it be either a critique or a satire of any of these?
He is a transcendence because he is free thinking, self-reliance because he believe he has to do everything himself.
Discuss why you think Bartleby acts as he does.
As a person- mental health (depression),
Allegory- transcendentalism, him being an individual, he is just copying papers so he is relied on but not that important.
In Chapter X, "The Young Christian," we hear more of Georgiana's abolitionist argument, which is also, to some extent, a defense of Christianity from hypocrisy. What exactly does she have to say?
Slavery is violation of the 8th commandment to the worst degree, stealing from a man his whole life, therefore there should be no reasonable defense by a christian for owning slaves.
In what ways may brown's account of his life and his escape from slavery affect our reading of the rest of the novel?
If Brown hadn't personally experience an event then her has witnessed it. Brown's story comes first and with each that follows we feel as if they are just extra examples to his story.
Rev. John Peck and Mr. Carlton politely debate the morality of slavery, especially in a biblical light. Outline the points of both men's arguments. What is Georgiana's response to them both
Peck: -slaves are people that should be well fed and not overworked - Believes slaves should be christian, none shall be without the gospel - It is better for christians to have slaves than non christians because they will treat them better
Carlton: - "I can see no difference between white and black hen as it regards liberty" - He follows his conscience - "my conscience is my own bible"
Georgina: - A true christian loves all who loves the lord, no matter their race or gender.
Rev. Snyder delivers a pro-slavery sermon. How does he use scripture to defend slavery?
"Do onto others as you would have others do onto you" saying if you had slaves you would want them to do what they are told and do it well. An "I servant" is only one who does well while someone else is watching. "Servants be obedient to him..." He uses the bible out of context to make his point that slaves need to obey and accept their duties. God knows your purpose.
Chapter VII attempts to explain the effects of slavery on the poor whites of the southern states. What claims is this chapter making?
Slavery isnt beneficial to poor whites. It isnt economically helpful. If your against slavery and poor you arent going to make it.
As readers, how do you respond to the aggressively polyvocal narrative that is Clotel? Why do you suppose we hear of so many different characters, some even based on real people and events?
It shows that Cotel's experience wasn't just an isolated case. With so many characters makes it more likely for the reader to identify with a character. Makes the reader feel guilty, can't dismiss them all.
Chapter XVIII explores an idea that was floated off and on throughout the 19th century, and even early 20th century, in America: the idea of sending people of African descent back to Africa. What is Georgina's reply to this proposal?
Against it, talking about freeing their slaves the determining where they are going to ago when they are free, this is not their native land because they have fought wars for us and their families are here.
In Chapter XXI, "The Christian's death," Georgina makes a deathbed speech. What are her main points? What is her advice to the newly emancipated people she speaks to?
To do the right thing in reference to a "city upon a hill", she was making assumptions about things, behave and dont go crazy now that you are free, rally around God not around men, do you really need to respect people who have never respected you?
Brown inserts the New Orleans article about the bear and bull fight in chapter XXII. Why do you suppose Brown wanted this text in his novel?
There to represent violence in the time, it is seen as entertainment, this is the culture of the south, there is a tolerance that builds up to cruelty, you have to keep taking things farther to get the reaction you want
Summarize the abolitionist arguments that you can discern in Brown's novel Clotel.
Abolitionist Arguments: used the Bible in context, the golden rule, Declaration of Independence "All men are equal," American hypocrisy (freedom), Ancient legends/myths/the bible are too old to apply to present day issues, economic decline (poor whites), dehumanizing, splitting families, marital affairs, most extreme form of theft (8th commandment)
columbus described 6 new resources such as
slaves, cinnamon, gold, spices, chocolate, coffee
Rowlandson and De vaca's works are known as
in a "Modell of christian charitie" Winthrop describes their new colony as
a city upon a hill
Bradford figuratively represents himself and colonists as
The wandering israelites
Who does the grandfather cliff share his folk stories with in seneca "origin of folk stories"?
What does young Ben Franklin buy for himself when he lands in Philadelphia for the first time
Rowlandson thinks of herself as a later-day:
Rowandson thinks from what perspective:
The puritan belief in predestination shows the influence of
Calvinism-justification by faith
Declaration of independence is based largely on the enlightenment theory of the
John Winthrops, "A modell of christian charitie" is considered a
1st 10 amendments of the constitution are known as the
bill of rights
The rationalistic belief in a divine creator of perfect universe and no need of divine intervention
the heirarchal order of all metaphysical and physical experience
the great chain of being
Ben franklin was sent as ambassador to _________ to seek aid for the American revolution
What created a market for reading and wealth in the 19th century?
John smith was named leader of the colony of
belief that a person's duty to work hard and save is referred to as
puritan work ethic
Equianos and Frankin's works are known as
natives timid and unarmed, found resources such as gold, spices, savages
shipwrecked in gulf, successful merchant w/ natives, returned to spain
admires powhatan natives, exaggerates pochontas in writing, critical of his own colony, captivity
delivered before 700 colonists left for america, what is expected to live true christian life, love and community
John Winthrop-modell of christian charitie
objections to colonization, preconceived violent savages, paralled w israelites in old testament
William bradford-plymouth plantation
equal laws, require that colonists "defend the faith", obedient to authority
God justifies treatment of natives/ land
puritans v. spanish and virginia co.
captivity is a common theme, king philip's war, preface to book was significant
Mary rowlandson-the soverignty and goodness of god
book of poems of women and their talents, poem was a fathlerless child-no help from a man, monetary metaphor-claiming success
the american dream, success in business, freedom and happiness, nothing to something (europe to new world)
5 functions of the constituion
establish justice, domestic tranquility, common defense, general welfare, life liberty and property
no unreasonable search and seizure
powers aren't solely delegated to federal or state govnts, checks and balances
5 1st amendment rights:
speech, religion, petition, assembly, press (expression)
balance of securities and liberties
america v. europe, dimple v. manly, man v. woman, america is too luxurious but honest w/ important ideas, jonathan and jessamy, charlotte/lititia v. maria
Tyler's the contrast
strict on himself, good deeds, business man-sacrifices interests, recorded all his wrongs
always reflecting inwardly
incident on slave ship, fear stricken in slaves
women like nuns until marraige-satire, ralph, alice, and mrs. cauldle, blue stocking, huge demand for reading material
sedgewick- cacoethes scribendi (the burden of writing)
mishosha, old magician-represents old indian ways, young man, noble savage-building on earth that separates us from the gods
schoolcraft and Apess
womens rights compared to slavery, self-dependent, transcendent, refers to self as miranda
contemplation of death, meditation, xctly american-manifest destiny-indians fade out, new world comes in, death on american soil-burial mounds (greeks)
Bryant's thanatopsis and praries
making comical american values using american zeitgeist (the religious slef-discovery of the enlightenment)
Wheatly and Irving
religion of the enlightenment
people of the enlightenment
montesquie, locke, hobbes, rousseau
putting society before yourself, when individuals suffer, everyone suffers, benefit the greater good, relates to modern -day charity
community of perill-John Winthrop
the eyes of everyone are upon them, salt and light-jesus' sermon on the mount, cannot be hidden, precedent for politics
city on a hill
land is a gift to be used to build, live on, etc.
the quality of giving and spending freely
extreme liberality-John winthrop
only God can help you fight earthly desires (calvinist belief)
flesh and spirit-anne bradstreet
"people are greater than animals"
-world is an island made from water
- very close relationship with nature
- many tribes
- dominance over creation
-"failed" mission to China
- resources: gold, spices, chocolate, coffee, natives
Natives (as described by Columbus)
Captivity Narrative (term)
- story of capture by people groups of whom they oppose in some form
- a collection of memories
De Vaca (explorer)
- shipwrecked in the Gulf of Mexico
- escaped captors and became a successful merchant with natives
- eventually returned to Spain
- admires Powhatan Natives
- exaggeration of Pocahontas narrative (captured by 200 Indians)
English vs. Spanish Colonization
- both had difficulties
- John Smith was very critical of his own colony (English)
Puritans vs. Spanish & Virginia Co.
- John Winthrop ("band together like brothers") looked to God for a sign
- Spanish & V. Co. ( God is a justification of treatment of the Natives and land)
- Plymouth Plantation
- Objection to new Colony (disease, women/children, indians)
- Preconceptions (savages, violents, animals & wild men)
- Parallels (old testament, wilderness journey)
- Wilderness- place without God- Negative connotation
- Mayflower Compact (equal law, defend the faith)
- Concerns (increasing in size, crops, people)
- recognizes women and their talents
- typology (biblical)
- use of irony (claimed success caused losing sight of what is right)
- disagreement between Puritans, Anglicans, and Catholics
- the American Dream
- freedom causes happiness
- success in business
- the want for freedom of speech, press, etc.
- 4th Amendment- no unreasonable searches and seizures
- balance of Securities and Liberties
- 1st Amendment- freedom of expression
Royall Tyler - The Contrast
- AMERICAN play
- America vs. Europe
- Men vs. Women
- Manly man vs. Dimple man (lol)
- America is almost too luxurious
- very strict on himself
- recorded all wrong he did
- woke up and went to bed with the goal of a good deed
- tried to live perfect
- always reflecting inwardly
- Satire (women like nuns until marriage then womanhood and parenthood)
- Ralph Hepburn (hunter, musician, woodworker)
- Alice Courland ("famous" twice)
- Huge demand for reading material in this time period
- old magician (represents old indian ways)
- young man (new indian ways & learned from old magician)
- women's rights compared to slavery
- women thought of as objects
William Cullen Bryant- Prairies
- mounds thought of as burial grounds
- preceded the Greeks
- America is older than Greece
- tries to justify colonial treatment of Natives
Bryant's Theory and Ideas
- Ancient race of smart and kind people built the mounds--killed by invading Native Americans
- Manifest Destiny
- Indians Fade away
- Noble Savage (building on the earth separates us from God/gods)
applying actions to learning in order to engage and see the outcome
valuation of labor
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk
The Story of An Hour
Test 1: The Age of Realism
Harris and Chestnut