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UCSP Chapter 2
Terms in this set (48)
group of individual sharing common culture, geographical location, and government
culture, geographical location, government
society is a group of individual sharing a common _____, ______, and ______.
survival skills, potential, resources
Society enables individuals to acquire necessary ______, maximize _______, and share ________.
Edward Burnett Taylor
"Society complex encompasses beliefs, practices, values, attitudes, laws, norms, artifacts, symbols, knowledge, and everything that a person learns and shared as a member of society."
social solidarity, shared identity and culture, common language, large population (ability to sustain succeeding members), definite geographical area, political economic & social organization.
characteristics of society
members of the community live together for mutual benefit (ex. government taxes in return for services)
shared identity and culture
serve as basis for their patterns of actions and behavior (common interest)
Hunting and gathering
Date back several millions years ago,
basic social and economic units were family and local clan
hunt animals and gather plants for food
Horticultural and Pastoral
gradual shift from hunting and gathering
more sedentary life
introduction of agricultural as a food production method
learned how to domesticate animals (poultry, livestock) and plant vegetation.
cultivation of plants as primary source of food
domestication of animals
efficient food production (new method of farming, advanced tools and tech, permanent settlements)
Horticultural caters food within local clan and family while agricultural can cater both family and others.
Difference between agricultural and horticultural
europe and north america started this
invention of machines to improve production
rise of urban centers or cities as major development
latter portion of the 20th century
knowledge as common commodity (universities, academy schools)
technological innovation as key to development and growth
important base that define and influence society
set of beliefs, ideas, values, practices, knowledge, history, and shared experiences, attitudes, as well as material objects and possessions accumulated over time and shared by members.
material dimension of culture
physical tangible objects shared by society
non-material dimension of culture
Intangible properties and elements such as beliefs and religion
Folklore (non-material culture)
community stories and other types of narratives shared within societies
proverbs and riddles
embodies the history
practices that defines society
Traditional beliefs, customs and stories in a community that is passed through generations by the word of mouth.
Vital cultural components
symbols (ex. Cross, a significance to Christians)
Things that convey meaning or represent an idea
essential in communication, shaping thoughts and ideas, and defining society's culture
Language (eng, spanish, body langauges, gestures, phrases) like trapic instead of traffic
set of symbols to enable members to communicate verbally and non-verbally.
Values (ex. Respect to the seniors)
are shared ideas norms principles that provide standards to what is right or wrong, good or bad, desirable and undesirable. (Goodness)
Norms (ex. normal for ppl to live dependently with parents even if already 18 and above)
shared rules of conduct or expectation determining specific behaviors among members
varies in degrees of importance and subject to change, reinforced by sanctions like rewards and punishments.
folkways, mores, laws
Categories of norms according to social importance
(Norm category) may be violated without serious consequence
it is purely subjective such as farting during family dinner.
(Norm category) with moral connotations
ex. you wear a bikini in an oral defense, church or formal meeting. (Punished by school, church, etc.)
(Norm category) legally enacted and enforced.
ex. polyamorous, multiple marriages, but illegal.
Culture and identity formation
facilitated through socialization and enculturation.
Culture and identity formation are facilitated through ______ and _______.
Socialization (ex. Father teaching son of practices)
refers to lifelong process of forging identity through social interaction.
language as social agent.
focuses more on acquisition of knowledge, habits, and skills.
Enculturation (ex. Father lets the son observe the practices)
process which individual learns important aspects of his society's culture.
takes place through observation, and acquisition of cultural traits.
Dynamics (Culture is dynamic)
ability of culture to adapt realities of the present context
Context (ex. japanese address each other in last names with respect unlike here in Ph, we can address in first names)
refers to PARTICULAR circumstances of a certain culture defined by location, weather, time, period and other factors.
3 disciplines of culture and society
considers culture as the central focus of its discipline.
Relavistic approach, ethnocentric approach, cultural relativism, xenocentrism
(Approach in ant) considers cultures as equal (nobody is inferior/superior, no discrimination)
Ethnocentric Approach (Ethnocentrism)
(Ant Approach) one's culture is superior to others
ex. americans are better than chinese
recognizes and accepts cultural differences between societies.
ex. you accept culture as you migrate
(ant Approach) tendency to consider culture as inferior to others
Ex. Ph colonial mentality (every locally made are inferior)
relates culture with overall context of social order.
views society as stable and orderly system
views culture as glue that binds society together
ex. colleges offering technical programs, increasing of women workforce, no job discrimination
views as there is constant power struggle among social groups and institutions within society.
idea of Karl Marx: rich people are manipulating the poor
views individual and group behavior and social interactions as defining features of society.
actual interaction through shared symbols such as thumbs up (agree or okay), flags indicating country's symbol.
examines culture as vital aspect of society
analyze voting pattern and behavior of culture
(Polsci) Ideology acknowledges and promotes cultural diversity within society.
Ex. United States as melting pot of the world (many nationalities)
(Polsci) advances awareness and acceptance of cultural differences but encourages critical stance in dealing issues regarding diversity.
ex. Ph shaking hands, Jp bow as sign of respect.
Acceptance but encourages critical stance
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