THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
The interpersonal _______ of information and understanding from one person to another
- A linked social process of sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback
THE BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESS
sender --> encode --> medium --> decode --> receiver --> feedback
sender: idea, perception
encode: to be a good communicator, you first have to _______ the person you're communicating to
medium: phone, text, face to face
decode: translating it into ______
receiver: understanding, perception
feedback: acknowledgement of ______
understand, meaning, acceptance
SELECTING A MEDIUM
Moving between ____- and ____-context cultures can create appropriate media selection problems.
- In low-context cultures (AMERICA), the verbal content of the message is more important than the medium through which it is delivered.
- In high-context cultures (JAPAN), the context (setting) in which the message is delivered is more important than the literal words of the message.
A CONTINGENCY APPROACH (LENGEL AND DAFT)
Media _______ : A given medium's capacity to convey information and promote learning
Characteristics of rich mediums:
- Provide simultaneous _______ information cues
- Facilitate _______ feedback
- Have a _______ focus
Characteristics of lean mediums:
- Convey limited information (few cues)
- Provide no immediate feedback
- Impersonal by nature
richness, multiple, immediate, personal
Successful decoding depends on the receiver having:
- A _______ to receive the message
- _______ of the language and terminology used in the message
- An understanding of the sender's _______ and background situation
willingness, knowledge, purpose
The choice factors for the form to provide feedback are the same factors governing the encoding process.
Feedback affects the form and content of follow-up communication.
Effective feedback is _______ , _______ , and _______ .
timely, relevant, personal
- any _______ with the normal flow of communication.
- Understanding _______ as noise increases.
- To deal with noise:
- Make messages more understandable.
- Minimize and neutralize sources of interference.
Impersonal and one-way communications (lectures)
A restricted set of messages with explanations for their importance and relevance
Information and issues that are keys to organizational success are discussed and explained.
Responding to employee concerns about prior organizational communications
Telling employees only what they need to know when you think they need to know it
spray, pay, tell, sell, underscore, explore, identify, replay, withhold, uphold
Seeking a middle-ground Communication Strategy:
- Avoid Spray & Pray and Withhold & Uphold.
- Use Tell & Sell and Identify & Reply sparingly.
- Use ____& ____as much as possible.
Merging Communication Strategies and Media Richness:
- Managers need to select the richest medium possible when employing Tell & Sell, Identify & Reply, and Underscore & Explore strategies.
The grapevine is the unofficial and _____ communication system in an organization.
Words of Caution About the E-Grapevine and "Blogs":
- Web logs ("blogs," or online diaries) vastly and instantly extend the reach of the grapevine.
- Writers of blogs and senders of e-gossip leave electronic trails that may prove embarrassing or worse at a later date.
Managerial Attitudes Toward the Grapevine:
-Managers have predominately negative feelings about the grapevine.
-The grapevine is more prevalent at lower levels of the managerial hierarchy.
-The grapevine is likely to be more influential in larger organizations.
-The grapevine can help managers learn how employees truly feel about policies and programs.
DOESN'T HAVE A GRAPEVINE
Coping with the Grapevine:
- The grapevine cannot be extinguished.
- Attempts to stifle the grapevine are likely to stimulate it instead.
- Monitoring and officially _____ grapevine information is perhaps the best strategy for coping with the grapevine.
Nonverbal communication based on facial expressions, posture, and appearance
Types of Body Language:
Receiving Nonverbal Communication:
Awareness of nonverbal cues can give insight into deep-seated emotions.
Giving Nonverbal Feedback:
- Nonverbal feedback from authority figures significantly affects employee behavior.
- Positive feedback builds good interpersonal relations.
- Sensitivity and cross-cultural training can reduce nonverbal errors when working with individuals from other cultures.
facial, gestural, postural,
The process of encouraging employees to share their feelings and ideas with _____ .
Options for improving upward communication:
-Formal grievance procedures (_____)
-Employee attitude and opinion surveys
-Internet chat rooms
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
Misinterpretation of the meaning of words and phrases by individuals
- Specialized occupational languages can create communication problems with outsiders.
Differing backgrounds, perceptions, values, biases, needs, and expectations of individuals can block communications.
Sexist and Racist Communication:
Progressive and ethical managers are weeding sexist and racist language out of their vocabularies and correspondence to eliminate the demeaning of women and racial minorities.
COMMUNICATING IN THE ONLINE WORKPLACE
Getting a Handle on E-Mail and Instant Messaging:
- Put short messages in the subject line.
- Be sparse with graphics and attachments.
Hello! Can We Talk Cell Phone Etiquette?:
- Advantages = mobility and convenience
- Disadvantages = distracted drivers and disturbing calls in public places, with the risk of disclosing private information
- A live television exchange between people in different locations
- Can reduce costly and possibly dangerous travel time
- Sending work to and from one's office via a computer modem while working at home
BECOMING A BETTER COMMUNICATOR
to be a food communicator - we have to be a good _______
effective ______ & effective _____
listener, listening, writing
BECOMING A BETTER COMMUNICATOR
Purposes of Meetings:
Pass along _____
Categories of Meetings:
Meet for a specific purpose.
Distribute the agenda in advance of the meeting.
Communicate preparation expectations to attendees.
Limit attendance to essential personnel.
Open with a brief overview; review important items first.
Encourage participation but keep to the agenda.
Limit use of visual aids.
Clarify after-meeting action items.
Follow a specific start and end time and follow up.
facts, problems, information