Building Construction Terms
Terms in this set (57)
Two or more interconnected structural components combined to meet a specific function or design requirement. Typical assemblies are roof trusses, wall frames, and doors including their frames.
An open space between the roof and ceiling of a building; most commonly found in single and multifamily residential occupancies. Provide open spaces in which fires can burn undetected or spread throughout a structure.
A type of wood-frame construction in which the studs in exterior walls extend from the basement or foundation to the roof. This type of construction allows fires to spread- often undetected from the basement to the attic through the hollow walls.
A joist constructed of steel with bars in the vertical web space. A common structural component in office buildings and other commercial structures, Very high strength to weight ratio except when exposed to the heat of a fire then early failure is likely
A horizontal structural component subjected to vertical loads. Typical beams are steel or wooden I-beams or large dimension wooden members
A roof assembly with a curved (arched) top chord and a horizontal bottom chord. These assemblies are very strong except when exposed to direct flame contact when catastrophic failure without warning may occur.
A V shaped roof in which the two sides slope toward a valley in the middle. An unusual type of roof that is rarely seen in cold climates where snow load is a factor
A beam that is unsupported at one or both ends. Typically used to support balconies or apartments.
The main structural members of a truss as destinguished from diagonals. Chords span the open space between the upper and lower diagonal members in a truss assembly.
An open space between the roof and ceiling of a commercial or industrial building. Usually found under flat or nearly flat roofs. In a fire, these spaces act in much the same way as attics.
A vertical supporting member. Columns may be wooden or steel posts. Steel posts often support lightweight roof assemblies, and if unprotected by surface insulation, steel posts may fail quickly in a fire.
Force that tends to push the mass of a material together. Bearing walls in a building are under compression from the weight of the roof and other materials above.
Horizontal layer of masonry units. A row of bricks is and example
Nonload-bearing interior wall ex- . tending down from a roof or ceiling to limit the horizontal spread of fire and heat. If curtain walls are penetrated by unprotected openings, fire can spread unchecked.
Planks or panels of plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) that form the substrate of a roof assembly. In vertical ventilation through a roof, the decking must be removed from the ventilation opening to realize the full effect of the opening.
The edge of a pitched roof that overhangs an outside wall. Attic vents provide an avenue for an exterior fire to enter the attic
gypsum interior wallboard used to produce a smooth and level interior wall surface and to resist fire
A wooden I-beam consisting of continuous wooden upper and lower chords separated by a web of OSB or similar sheet stock.
A rated assembly consisting of a solid-core door, door frame and hardware. Fire doors are used to confine a fire to one room or section of a building by closing a communicating opening when triggered by fire. If fire doors are to function as designed, they must not be prevented from closing by being intentionally or inadvertently blocked open.
Total potential heat release if a building and its contents burned. The fire load of a fully stocked lumber yard is considerably highter than that of an empty building of the same dimensions
Fire rated wall with a specified degree of fire resistance, built of fire-resistive materials and usually extending from the foundation up to and through the roof of a building, that is designed to limit the spread of a fire within a structure or between adjacent structures.
A roof that is flat or nearly flat relative to the horizon. Many commercial buildings have flat roofs covered with tar and gravel or other weatherproof material. Flat roofs lend themselves to being opened for vertical ventilation.
A pitched roof characterized by squarecut ends and sides that slope down from the ridge line to the eaves. These are the most common roof style on homes and other small buildings.
A roof characterized by a single ridge line from which roof sections on both sides of the ridge descend at two different pitches. These roofs are common on barns and other farm structures.
n. A beam, as of steel, wood, or reinforced concrete, used as a main horizontal support in a building or bridge.
A wooden structural member composed of relatively short pieces of lumber glued and laminated together under pressure to form a long, extremely stron beam. Because of the mass of most glue-lam beams, they resist fire extremely will compared to other materials
Wooden or metal plate used to connect structural members that are butted together; most often used in the construction of trusses. Many plates are simply pressed into the wood and are subject to early failure if the plates warp from the heat of the fire.______that are nailed or screwed to the members are much more reliable during a fire.
interior finish material consisting of calcinated gypsum, starch, water and other additives sandwiched between two shhets of specially treated paper. drywall.
course of bricks laid with the ends facing outward
A pitched roof in which the ends are all beveled so that theres are no gable walls. Common roof style on many newer residences. Unlike gable roofs, in hip roofs the attic v ents are on ly under the eaves or oon the roof
Abbreviation for HEATING, VENTILATING, and AIR CONDITIONING.. Ductwork allows smoke to travel through a structure
An accessible or inaccessible space between layers of building materials; an attic or cockloft sometimes used to house HVAC and other machinery. Like attics and cock lofts, unless properly protected, these spaces can allow fire to burn undetected or to spread throughout a building.
Horizontal repetitive members used to support the floor. They are made from nominal 2" thick wood, and their depth is determined by the distance they are required to span. Common depths are 8, 10 and 12". The space between joists is spanned with plywood or particleboard subflooring on which underlayment is placed in preparation for finish flooring.
An arch constructed of short wooden members connected in a specific geometric pattern. Found in older buildings
A roof characterized by steeply sloped facets surrounding a flat or nearly flat center section. Many remodeled building have false mansard roofs that consist of a fascia added to an existing flat roof
n. A mixture of lime or cement or a combination of both with sand and water, used as a bonding agent between bricks, stones, etc.
Open Web Joist
A joist constructed with a web composed of materials such as bars or tubes that not fill the entire web space. These are very common building assemblies because of their strength compared to their cost. When exposed to fire they lose their strength quickly.
Oriented Strand Board
A wooden structural panel formed by gluing and compressing wood strands together under pressure. This material has replaced plywood and planding in the majority of construction applications. Floor decks, walls and subloors
Parallel Chord Truss
a truss constructed with the top and bottom chords parallel
a low protective wall or railing along the edge of a raised structure such as a roof or balcony
The ratio of rise to span of a roof assembly. The steeper the ____ the greater the slips hazard unless roof ladders are used.
A roof that is sloped to facilitate runoff. Pitched roofs range from those that are flat to those that are extremely steep, common on some churches.
A wall shared by two adjoining buildings; usually a load-bearing wall that is also a fire wall. The failure of a roof assembly attached to a party wall can affect the structrural integrity of the adjoining building
The top or bottom horizontal member of a frame wall. The sole plate is nailed or screwed to the subloor, and the top ploate is what the roof assembly rests on
Frame type construction in which each floor interrupts the exterior studs forming an effective fire stop at every floor. This is the most common type of consturction used to frame mrodern residences and other small buildeings
Thin sheet of wood glued together so that the grains are at right angles to one another; an odd number of sheets will be used so that the grain on the front and back will always run the same direction.
Beams that span from a ridge board to an exterior wall plate to support roof decking. Cutting these can seriously weaken a roof.
Two or more construction components combinged to form an assembly that has a specific fire resistance rating. Fire Doors, gypsum Drywall
Short for reinforcing bar. These steel bars are placed in concrete forms before the cement is poured. When the concrete sets (hardens) the rebar within it adds considerable strength.
Concrete that contains steel reinforcement (rebar) or fiberglass reinforcing rod to strengthen it.
A roof with a profile of vertical and sloping surfaces that resemble a saw blade. These roofs are common on older industrial buildings, but many are still in existence. The vertical walls in the roofs usually include man windows to allow light in. In some cases the windows can be opened to provide natural ventilation. Removing these windows can sometimes provide adequate ventilation during a fire.
Plywood, OSB, Or wooden planking (Sometimes called Sheeting) applied to a wall or roof over which a weather-resistant covering is applied. Most sheathing is relatively easy to penetrate forcible entry or ventilation.
A pitched roof that slopes in one direction only from the ridge
Degrading of concrete due to prolonged exposure to hight heat. Water trapped within the concrete is vaporized by the heat and expands, cuasing the concrete to break apart. Spalling concrete can sound like gun fire
A vertical structural member in a frame wall. Stud walls are the assemblies to which wall coverings are nailed or screwed. Studs can be made of either wood or light-gauge steel.
Force that tends to pull the mass of a material apart. Thension is what causes some roof assemblies to pull away from walls and fall inward
A strong frame work of straight section of metal (called strats and ties), joined together at their ends, forming triangles. This triangular structure distributes weight outward and gradually down, instead of straight down. It can be added to strengthen beam or suspension bridges.
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