Upgrade to remove ads
Human Geography Chapter 2: Population & Health
Terms in this set (48)
A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population. Important for three reasons:
-More people are alive at this time than at any other point in Earth's long history.
-Virtually all global population growth is concentrated in developing countries.
-The world's population increased at a faster rate during the second half of the twentieth century than ever before in history; the rate has slowed in the twenty-first century but is still high by historical standards.
The population size of a species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the available resources. Derives partly from characteristics of the natural environment and partly from human actions to modify the environment through agriculture, industry, and exploitation of raw materials.
A situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living. Geographers have found this to be a threat in some regions of the world but not others, that is if a region has an unfavorable balance between population and resources.
The scientific study of population characteristics. People in this field look statistically at how people are distributed spatially by age, gender, occupation, fertility, health, and so on, but predicting the future population is difficult.
A complete enumeration of a population. Occurs at every year ending in zero in the United States. Controversial in many countries for two reasons:
-Nonparticipation: People who are homeless, ethnic minorities, and citizens of other countries who do not have proper immigration documents may be less likely to complete the form.
-Sampling: Politicians sympathetic to the needs of people who are homeless and immigrants have been especially vocal in support of sampling, whereas those from small towns and rural areas, where the count is more accurate, are more inclined to oppose it.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. Generally, it refers to locations where people have made their permanent home as well as lands used for productive economic activities such as agriculture. Over time, Earth's human population and the spatial extent of settlement have increased.
The total number of people divided by the total land area. It enables geographers to compare the number of people living in different regions of the world. It answers the "where" question. One of three measures of population frequently used by geographers.
The number of people per unit area of arable land. When compared with arithmetic densities, it helps geographers understand the capacity of the land to yield enough food for the needs of the people. One of three measures of population frequently used by geographers.
Land suitable for agriculture.
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of arable land. Developed countries have lower densities because technology and finance allow a few people to farm extensive land areas and feed many people. One of three measures of population frequently used by geographers.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. The term natural means a growth rate that excludes migration. Its peak was 2.1% in 1968.
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. The highest of these are in sub-Saharan Africa, and the lowest are in Europe.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years. To compute this, demographers assume that a woman reaching a particular age in the future will be just as likely to have a child as are women of that age today.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year of age for every 1,000 live births in a society. In general, this reflects the quality of a country's health-care system.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.The variation between the world's highest and lowest is much less extreme than the variation in CBRs.
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population. According to expert demographic sources, this consists of 4 stages, but some demographers anticipate a stage 5.
Stage 1: Low Growth
-Very High CBR
-Very High CDR
-Very Low NIR
A primitive stage of the demographic transition. For most of this period, people depended on hunting and gathering for food. Today, no country remains in this stage.
Stage 2: High Growth
-Still High CBR
-Rapidly Declining CDR
-Very High NIR
Europe and North America entered this stage of the demographic transition after 1750 as a result of the Industrial Revolution. The push of developing countries into this stage was caused by the Medical Revolution.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that has diffused to the poorer countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Stage 3: Moderate Growth
-Rapidly Declining CBR
-Moderately Declining CDR
The population continues to grow because the CBR is still greater than the CDR. This stage of the demographic transition occurs when people have fewer children, this decision partly being a delayed reaction to a decline in mortality. A dramatic decline in birth rates came after 1974, when a constitutional amendment guaranteed families the legal right to decide on the number and spacing of children, and a National Population Council was established to promote family planning through education.
Stage 4: Low Growth
-Very Low CBR
-Low or Slightly Increasing CDR
-0 or Negative NIR
A country reaches this stage of the demographic transition when the CBR declines to the point where it equals the CDR and the NIR approaches zero.
Zero Population Growth
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero. This may occur when the CBR is still slightly higher than the CDR because some females die before reaching childbearing years, and the number of females in their childbearing years can vary.
Developed Health Care
A type of health care where developed countries use part of their wealth to provide publicly funded medical care to all citizens. Government programs pay more than 70 percent of health-care costs in most European countries, and private individuals pay less than 30 percent. Developed countries find it difficult to maintain this kind of health care because the percentage of people needing assistance has increased while economic growth has slowed.
Maternal Mortality Rate
The annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes). Females biologically face more health risks that profoundly affect the size and composition of the population of individual countries and the world as a whole. Some of the most common causes of maternal death include heavy bleeding, followed by high blood pressure.
The number of males per 100 females in the population. The standard biological level for humans at birth is around 105 male babies for every 100 female babies. The extremely low percentage of female babies in China and India results from cultural preference on the part of parents to have sons rather than daughters. Sons are regarded as more likely than girls to help the family economically.
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. People on average live much longer in wealthy countries than in poorer ones.
Potential Support Ratio
Also known as the Elderly Support Ratio. The number of working-age people (ages 15 to 64) divided by the number of persons 65 and older. Occurs as countries progressing through the demographic transition face increasing percentages of older people who need adequate levels of income and medical care after they retire from their jobs.
A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex.
The number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force. The larger this becomes, the greater the financial burden on those who are working to support those who do not.
The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a particular time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected place.
The process of change in the distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition. Epidemiologists rely heavily on geographic concepts such as scale and connection because measures to control and prevent an epidemic derive from understanding its distinctive distribution and method of diffusion.
Stage 1: Pestilence & Famine
The stage of the epidemiologic transition where epidemics and pandemics were principal causes of human deaths, along with accidents and attacks by animals and other humans. Malthus called these causes of death "natural checks on the growth of the human population in stage 1 of the demographic transition.
A widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time. It affects many persons at the same time and spreads from person to person in a locality where the disease is not permanently prevalent.
An epidemic that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population at the same time.
Stage 2: Receding Pandemics
The stage of the epidemiologic transition consisting of diminishing pandemics because improved sanitation, nutrition, and medicine during the Industrial revolution reduced the spread of infectious diseases.
Stage 3: Degenerative
The stage of the epidemiologic transition characterized by a decrease in deaths from infectious diseases and an increase in chronic disorders associated with aging.
Stage 4: Delayed Degenerative & Lifestyle Diseases
The stage of the epidemiologic transition founded by S. Jay Olshansky and Brian Ault, the stage of delayed degenerative diseases. The major degenerative causes of death—cardiovascular diseases and cancers—linger, but the life expectancy of older people is extended through medical advances.
Demographic Transition Stage 5
-Very Low CBR
A potential stage in the demographic transition for some developed countries. After several decades of very low birth rates, a country in this stage would have relatively few young women aging into childbearing years.
A government policy that supports higher birth rates.
A government policy that supports lower birth rates. Mostly enforced by China and India.
One Child Policy
China's government policy adopted in 1980. Under this policy, a couple needed a permit to have a child. Couples received financial subsidies, a long maternity leave, better housing, and (in rural areas) more land if they agreed to have just one child. To discourage births, people received free contraceptives, abortions, and sterilizations. Rules were enforced with penalties by a government agency.
The practice of regulating the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control. Heavily promoted in India in 1952. The government established clinics, provided information about alternative methods of birth control, distributed free or low-cost birth control devices, and legalized abortions. Most controversially, during the 1970s, camps were set up to perform sterilizations: surgical procedures in which people were made incapable of reproduction.
Methods of Lowering CBR
Approaches to lowering birth rates through education, health care, and contraception.
-With better education, women would better understand their reproductive rights, make more informed reproductive choices, and select more effective methods of contraception.
-With improved health-care programs, IMRs would decline through such programs as improved prenatal care, counseling about sexually transmitted diseases, and child immunization.
-With the survival of more infants ensured, women would be more likely to choose to make more effective use of contraceptives for family-planning.
Epidemiologic Transition Stage 5
A potential stage of the epidemiologic transition that can emerge in three ways:
-Evolution: Infectious disease microbes have continuously evolved and changed in response to environmental pressures by developing resistance to drugs and insecticides.
-Poverty: Infectious diseases are more prevalent in poor areas than other places because unsanitary conditions may persist, and most people can't afford the drugs needed for treatment.
-Increased Connections: Pandemics have spread in recent decades through the process of relocation diffusion. As they travel, people carry diseases with them and are exposed to the diseases of others.
A British economist who was one of the first to argue that the world's rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food supplies. In An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), he claimed that the population increased geometrically while food supply increased arithmetically.
A class of contemporary geographers and other analysts who follow in Thomas Malthus' footsteps because of Earth's unprecedented rate of natural increase during the late twentieth century. These people argue that characteristics of recent population growth make Malthus's thesis more frightening than when it was first proposed more than 200 years ago.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Human Geography Chapter 1: This Is Geogr…
Human Geography Chapter 3: Migration
Human Geography Chapter 4: Culture & Social Media
Human Geography Chapter 5: Languages
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Human Geography Chapter 12: Services & Settlements
Human Geography Chapter 11: Industry & Energy
Human Geography Chapter 10: Development
Human Geography Chapter 9: Food & Agricu…