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Religion founded by Muhammed in the sixth century. Became a world religion, dominating the Arab world.
1. Confess there is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his prophet.
2. Pray five times daily facing the Ka'bah in Mecca.
3. Fast, particularly during the month of Ramadan.
4. Give alms and charity.
5. Make a pilgrimage to Mecca.
"Successor" or leader of the Islamic community. Also considered to to be the imam, or religious leader.
Replaced Ali upon his assassination. Made the caliphate hereditary, founding the Umayyad dynasty.
Sunni. "Orthodox." Larger branch of Islam today.
Shi'ite. "Partisans of Ali." Anticipate the Occultation.
Overthrew the Umayyad dynasty. Brought political, economic, cultural changes. Tried to break distinctions between Arab and non-Arab Muslims.
Greatest Abbasid caliph. Called "the Upright." Rule known as the Golden Age of economic and educational prosperity.
Nomadic converts to Islam. Mercenaries for the Abbasid dynasty. Captured Baghdad and occupied the eastern part of the Abbasid empire.
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