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25 terms

hist110a - world civilizations - middle east and islam

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Bedouins
Nomadic Arabs from the northern peninsula.
sheikh
Ruling member of a Bedouin tribe, selected by the majlis.
majlis
Council of elders of a Bedouin tribe.
Muhammad
Founder of Islam, united Arab world.
hejira
The flight of early Muslims from Mecca to Medina in 622.
Islam/Muslim
Religion founded by Muhammed in the sixth century. Became a world religion, dominating the Arab world.
umma
Muslim community
Koran
Muslim holy book. Complied after Muhammed's death
5 Pillars
1. Confess there is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his prophet.
2. Pray five times daily facing the Ka'bah in Mecca.
3. Fast, particularly during the month of Ramadan.
4. Give alms and charity.
5. Make a pilgrimage to Mecca.
Shari'a
The "way" or "path." Muslim code of conduct
caliph
"Successor" or leader of the Islamic community. Also considered to to be the imam, or religious leader.
Ali
Muhammed's son-in-law and cousin. Was assassinated in 661, inspiring the Shi'ite faction.
Muawiya
Replaced Ali upon his assassination. Made the caliphate hereditary, founding the Umayyad dynasty.
Sunni/Shi'ite
Sunni. "Orthodox." Larger branch of Islam today.
Shi'ite. "Partisans of Ali." Anticipate the Occultation.
Umayyads
Muslim dynasty founded by Muawiya. Called "more political than pious."
Yarmuk
Battle in which the Muslims defeated the Byzantine army in 636.
Abbasids
Overthrew the Umayyad dynasty. Brought political, economic, cultural changes. Tried to break distinctions between Arab and non-Arab Muslims.
Harun al-Rashid
Greatest Abbasid caliph. Called "the Upright." Rule known as the Golden Age of economic and educational prosperity.
Seljuk Turks
Nomadic converts to Islam. Mercenaries for the Abbasid dynasty. Captured Baghdad and occupied the eastern part of the Abbasid empire.
Crusades
Christian invasions of Islamic land in an attempt to "reclaim" the Holy Land.
House of Wisdom
Arabic library in Baghdad.
Arabian Nights
Collection of Arabic tales by Omar Khayyam.
Omar Khayyam
Arabic poet and storyteller in the twelfth century. Exhibited modern-like skepticism.
Ibn Sina
Arabic physician and philosopher who proposed that the world operates on natural laws.
Sufism
Islamic mysticism embraced by thirteenth-century poet Rumi. Dervishes twirl to attain God through ecstatic love.