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40 terms

Biological Psychology - Kalat 13.1

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Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
Pairing two stimuli changes the response to one of them
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Initially elicits no response of note (sound)
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that automatically elicits the unconditioned response (meat)
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
Response automatically evoked by an unconditioned stimulus (salivation)
Conditioned Response
A new learned response
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
An individual's response is followed by a reinforcer or punishment
Reinforcer
Any event that increases the future probability of the response
Punishment
An event that suppresses the frequency of the response
Engram
The physical representation of what has been learned (a connection between two brain areas would be a possible example)
Karl Lashley
Person who focused on finding the engram of memory in the cerebral cortex, proposed two principles about the nervous system: Equipotentiality & Mass Action
Equipotentiality
All parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex behaviors such as learning; any part of the cortex can substitute for any other (principle Karl Lashley proposed).
Mass Action
The cortex works as a whole, and the more cortex the better (principle Karl Lashley proposed).
Lateral Interpositus Nucleus (LIP)
Learning & retention occur here, one nucleus of the cerebellum (consistently found change there when testing to see which brain cells changed their responses during learning). At the start of training, those cells showed little response to the tone, but as learning proceeded, their responses increased→ correlation does not prove causation, just because change in response doesn't mean that the learning took place in that area
Working Memory
The way we store info while we are working with it or attending to it
Phonological Loop
The way we store information while we are working with it or attending to it
Visuospatial Sketchpad
Stores visual information
Central Executive
Directs attention toward one stimulus or another and determines which items will be stored in working memory
Delayed Response Task
A common test of working memory, requires responding to a stimulus that one heard or saw a short while later
Amnesia
Memory loss
Anterograde Amnesia
Loss of memories for events that happened after brain damage
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for events that occurred shortly before brain damage
Episodic Memories
Memories of single events
Declarative Memory
The ability to state a memory in words
Procedural Memory
The development of motor skills & responses
Explicit Memory
Deliberate recall of information that one recognizes as a memory
Implicit Memory
Influence of recent experience on behavior, without necessarily realizing that one is using memory
Delayed Matching-to-Sample Task
An animal sees an object (the sample) and then, after a delay, gets a choice between two objects, from which it must choose the one that matches the sample
Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample Task
The procedure is the same except that the animal must choose the object that is different from the sample
Radial Maze
It has eight or more arms, some of which have a bit of food or other reinforcer at the end
Morris Water Maze Task
A task in which a rate must swim through murky water to find a rest platform that is just under the surface
Configural Learning
The meaning of a stimulus depends on what other stimuli are paired with it
Consolidated
Short term memories are strengthened into long term memories
Wernicke (Korsakoff's) Syndrome
Brain damage caused by prolonged thiamine deficiency
Priming
One type of implicit memory is the phenomenon that seeing or hearing words temporarily increases one's probability of using them
Confabulation
A symptom of Korsakoff's Syndrome in which the patient takes a guess to fill in the gaps in his or her memory
Alzheimer's Disease
A cause of memory loss
Amyloid Beta Protein 42 (Absub42)
A longer protein with 32 amino acids, which accumulates, clumps with other ABsub42 molecules, and damages the membranes of axons & dendrites
Tau
It is a protein that is part of the intracellular support structure of neurons
Plaques
Amyloid produces this, structures formed from degenerating axons & dendrites
Tangles
Tau produces these, structures formed from degenerating structures within neuronal cell bodies