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Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)

Pairing two stimuli changes the response to one of them

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

Initially elicits no response of note (sound)

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

stimulus that automatically elicits the unconditioned response (meat)

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

Response automatically evoked by an unconditioned stimulus (salivation)

Conditioned Response

A new learned response

Operant Conditioning (Skinner)

An individual's response is followed by a reinforcer or punishment


Any event that increases the future probability of the response


An event that suppresses the frequency of the response


The physical representation of what has been learned (a connection between two brain areas would be a possible example)

Karl Lashley

Person who focused on finding the engram of memory in the cerebral cortex, proposed two principles about the nervous system: Equipotentiality & Mass Action


All parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex behaviors such as learning; any part of the cortex can substitute for any other (principle Karl Lashley proposed).

Mass Action

The cortex works as a whole, and the more cortex the better (principle Karl Lashley proposed).

Lateral Interpositus Nucleus (LIP)

Learning & retention occur here, one nucleus of the cerebellum (consistently found change there when testing to see which brain cells changed their responses during learning). At the start of training, those cells showed little response to the tone, but as learning proceeded, their responses increased→ correlation does not prove causation, just because change in response doesn't mean that the learning took place in that area

Working Memory

The way we store info while we are working with it or attending to it

Phonological Loop

The way we store information while we are working with it or attending to it

Visuospatial Sketchpad

Stores visual information

Central Executive

Directs attention toward one stimulus or another and determines which items will be stored in working memory

Delayed Response Task

A common test of working memory, requires responding to a stimulus that one heard or saw a short while later


Memory loss

Anterograde Amnesia

Loss of memories for events that happened after brain damage

Retrograde Amnesia

Loss of memory for events that occurred shortly before brain damage

Episodic Memories

Memories of single events

Declarative Memory

The ability to state a memory in words

Procedural Memory

The development of motor skills & responses

Explicit Memory

Deliberate recall of information that one recognizes as a memory

Implicit Memory

Influence of recent experience on behavior, without necessarily realizing that one is using memory

Delayed Matching-to-Sample Task

An animal sees an object (the sample) and then, after a delay, gets a choice between two objects, from which it must choose the one that matches the sample

Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample Task

The procedure is the same except that the animal must choose the object that is different from the sample

Radial Maze

It has eight or more arms, some of which have a bit of food or other reinforcer at the end

Morris Water Maze Task

A task in which a rate must swim through murky water to find a rest platform that is just under the surface

Configural Learning

The meaning of a stimulus depends on what other stimuli are paired with it


Short term memories are strengthened into long term memories

Wernicke (Korsakoff's) Syndrome

Brain damage caused by prolonged thiamine deficiency


One type of implicit memory is the phenomenon that seeing or hearing words temporarily increases one's probability of using them


A symptom of Korsakoff's Syndrome in which the patient takes a guess to fill in the gaps in his or her memory

Alzheimer's Disease

A cause of memory loss

Amyloid Beta Protein 42 (Absub42)

A longer protein with 32 amino acids, which accumulates, clumps with other ABsub42 molecules, and damages the membranes of axons & dendrites


It is a protein that is part of the intracellular support structure of neurons


Amyloid produces this, structures formed from degenerating axons & dendrites


Tau produces these, structures formed from degenerating structures within neuronal cell bodies

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