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Bio 1A- EXAM 1
Terms in this set (42)
Describe the elements of the scientific method
Describe the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons and their arrangements within an atom.
Protons: +charged and resides in atoms nucleus
Neutrons: uncharged and resides in nucleus electrons: negative charged and resides in electron orbital outside of nucleus
What are necessary qualifications for a hypothesis to be considered valid?
A valid hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable, meaning that experimental results can disprove it
Distinguish between basic and applied science. provide examples of each
Basic: (pure) seeks to expand knowledge regardless of short-term application of knowledge
Applied: (tech) aims to use science to solve real-world problems defined by research
Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning. Provide examples of each
Inductive: starts with specific observations to make more general claims about the world (ex: my neighbors cat hisses at me. All cats hiss at me. All cats hate me)
Deductive: starts with a general idea and becomes more specific (ex: muscles are made out of living tissue. All humans have muscles. All humans are made out of living tissue)
Describe the process of peer review and explain its significance in science
Process of peer review helps to ensure that the research in a scientific paper or grant proposal is original , significant, logical, and thorough
What is the difference between a primary and secondary source in science?
Primary: originals works like research, interviews, letters, etc
Secondary: written by someone other than the author of the original work
Which elements are found in the highest abundance in humans?
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
Given any atom in the first three rows of the periodic table, be able to determine the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons
Number of electrons orbiting the nucleus = number of protons inside the nucleus.
Atomic mass = number of protons n neutrons
What is an isotope?
Different forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
How is the half-life of an isotope defined?
The time it takes for half of the original concentration of an isotope to decay back to it's more stable form
What are some uses of radio isotopes in biology?
Emits neutrons, protons, and electrons, and attain a more stable atomic configuration
Given a particular element on the periodic table, be able to determine the electron configuration. Understand how the electron configuration of the atom determines how it will interact with other atoms.
The atomic number determines the amount of electrons
2 on first orbital
8 on second and so on
(Ex: Argons atomic number is 18: stable and unnecessary to share electrons )(ex: Lithium 3: need to donate or share electrons to to become positively charged)
Compare and contrast covalent and ionic bonds.
Covalent: Measure 12 or three pairs of electrons making single double and triple bonds. More bonds between atoms, stronger connection.
Define anion and cation
Anion: negative ions formed by gaining electrons
Cation: positive ion formed by losing electrons
What is the difference between a polar covalent bond and a nonpolar covalent bond?
Polar: Atoms unequally share the electrons and are attracted more to one nucleus than the other
Nonpolar: atoms equally share electrons and form between two atoms of the same element/between different elements
Describe a hydrogen bond and be able to identify one in a diagram
Weak bond between slightly positively charged hydrogen atoms and slightly negative charged atoms in other molecules.
Explain the four properties of life that make it an ideal medium for life
Sensitivity or response to the environment
Growth and development
Explain the relationship between the concentration of hydrogen ions, hydroxide ions and pH
Hydrogen ions: generate in pure water by dissociation of small percentage of water molecules into equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions (free in state of liquid water)
Hydroxide ions: kept in solution by their hydrogen bonding with other water molecules, hydrogen ions, consisting of naked protons, immediately attracted to un-ionized water molecules forming hydronium ion's
pH: acids increase hydrogen ions concentration in a solution= lowering pH. A base reduces hydroxide ions concentration by combining with hydrogen ions= raising pH
Describe the properties of a buffer and explain why they are important in biology
Readily absorb excess hydrogen or hydroxide, keeping the body's pH carefully maintained in the narrow range required for survival. The buffer maintaining the pH of human blood involves carbonic acid, bicarbonate ion, and carbon dioxide.
Explain why carbon is considered a versatile element
Unique properties that allow it to form covalent bonds to as many as four different atoms, making it ideal to serve as the basic structural component or "back bone" of macromolecules
Identify each of the seven functional groups and their basic properties
Carboxyl: charged, ionizes to release H+. Can release H+into solution= acidic
Amino: charged, accepts H+ to form NH3+. Can remove H+ from solution= basic
Phosphate: charged, ionizes to release H+. can release H+ into solution= acidic
Describe each of the three types of isomers
Structural: same number of each type of atom, but different shapes
Geometric: have a different arrangement of atoms around a double bond
Enantiomers: are mirror images of each other
Define polymer, monomer, catabolic, anabolic, dehydration reaction and hydrolysis.
Polymer: Larger molecules made from monomers combining using covalent bonds
Monomer: Single subunit/building blocks
Catabolic: breaking down
Anabolic: building up
Dehydration reaction: hydrogen of 1 monomer combines with hydroxyl group of another monomer forming a polymer
Hydrolysis: when polymers break down into monomers. Involves forms of new bonds/energy while bonds break and release energy
Explain how monosaccharides are classified.
Based on the position of the carbonyl group and the number of carbons in the back bone
Why do we generally consider all five and six carbon monosaccharides to be ring structures in biology?
Fold up into ring shaped molecules in water as a result of the reaction of the keto or aldehyde groups with a hydroxyl group
Explain how monosaccharides relate to disaccharides and polysaccharides
Disaccharides form went 2 monosaccharides undergo a dehydration reaction
Polysaccharides is a long chain of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds
What are the polysaccharides that we learned about in class? For each, indicate where they are found in nature and their function. All of these poly saccharides are made of glucose monomers, but not necessarily the same isomer. Explain how they differ structurally and how the structure leads to the function.
Glycogen: Storage form of glucose in humans and other vertebrae and is compromised of monomers of glucose
Cellulose: most abundant natural by polymer, mostly comprises a plant cell wall
Chitin: contains nitrogen made of repeating glucoseamine units which are a modified sugar
What are triglycerides made of?
glycerol and 3 fatty acids in a dehydration reaction
Describe the three types of triglycerides (2 natural, 1 man made). How do they differ at a chemical level and how do these differences relate to human health?
Satures fats: single bonds only
Unsaturated: have 1 or more double bonds. Hydrogens are on the same side of the hydrocarbon chain
Trans oleic acid: Hydrogens are on opposite sides. CIS double bond causes a kink in the chain
Describe the molecular structure of a single phospholipid.
Describe how phospholipids arrange in water
What are steroids? why are they important to biology?
Describe the process of building a poly peptide (protein). What kind of bond is you and which functional groups are involved?
Describe the primary, secondary, tertiary and quartenary structure of a protein.
What happens to protein in unfavorable conditions (too hot or too acidic)
What are the functions of nucleic acid?
List the differences between RNA and DNA
Define pyrimidine and purine and classify each nitrogenous base as one or the other
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
Describe the process of building a polymer of DNA. What are the two functional groups involved?
How are amino acids classified? Draw an example of a hydrophobic amino acid and a hydrophilic amino acid
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