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Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 3
Terms in this set (40)
What does CRH stand for?
corticotropin releasing hormone
What does CRH do?
Triggers the process of birth
Which hormone does CRH release?
What are Braxton Hicks contractions?
Sporadic contractions and relaxation of the uterine muscle that have been occurring since the fourth month
How do contractions aid in birthing a child?
1. Contractions force the head of the fetus against the cervix
2. The force of the contractions becomes strong enough to propel the fetus slowly down the birth canal until it enters the world as a neonate
What is another term for "newborn"?
True or false? The second pregnancy takes longer than the first
False: the first pregnancy takes longer
What occurs during the first stage of birth?
1. Uterine contractions occur every 8-10 minutes and last about 30 seconds
2. The mother's cervix finally open
Which stage of birth is the longest?
What occurs during the second stage of birth?
1. The baby's head moves through the birth canal
2. Stage ends when baby is born
What is an episiotomy?
What is an incision sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina
What occurs during the third stage of pregnancy?
The passing of the placenta
Why do babies cry when they are born?
1. To clean out their lungs
2. To begin breathing on their own
What is the APGAR scale?
a standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns
What are the five guidelines of the APGAR scale?
All newborns should be screened for _______ disorders.
Why do neonates get screening?
It permits early treatment of problems that otherwise might go undetected for years
What is the vernix?
Material covering a newborn that smooths the passage through the birth canal
What is lanugo?
fine downy hair of newborn infant
What does puffy eyelids on a neonate indicate?
The accumulation of fluids during labor
What is the sensitive period of bonding?
The close physical and emotional contact between parent and child during the period immediately after birth
What are the four approaches to childbirth (give a description of each)?
1. Lamaze (breathing techniques, learning how to breath)
2. Bradley Method (Coaching, natural birth)
3. Hypnobirthing (self-hypnosis)
4. Waterbirthing (giving birth in water)
What are three types of childbirth attendants?
What is an epidural?
is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) in the back. It numbs or causes a loss of feeling in the lower half your body. This lessens the pain of contractions during childbirth
What are the effects of pain reliving?
1. Depresses oxygen flow and slows labor
2. Newborns are less physiologically responsive and have poorer motor control during the first days after birth
3. Newborns may cry more and have difficulty breastfeeding
What are preterm infants?
They are born prior to 38 weeks after conception
What is considered a low birth weight infant?
An infant that weighs less than 5.5 lbs
What is considered a preterm baby?
Infants who, because of delayed fetal growth, weigh 90% (or less) of the average weight of infants of the same gestational age
What are 6 known causes of low birth weight deliveries
1. Multiple births
2. Young mothers (under age 15)
3. Births that are too closely spaced
4. Older Fathers
6. General health and nutrition of mother
What is a Cesarean delivery or c-section?
a birth in which the baby is surgically removed from the uterus
What are three reasons that women get C-sections?
1. Fetal stress
2. Older mother
3. Position in birth canal: breech, transverse
What is a stillbirth?
the delivery of a child who is not alive, occurring in fewer than 1 delivery in 100
What is postpartum depression?
depression suffered by a mother following childbirth, typically arising from the combination of hormonal changes, psychological adjustment to motherhood, and fatigue.
What are relfexes?
Unlearned, involuntary, organized responses
What are some examples of reflexes that we were born with?
What is meconium?
the dark green substance forming the first feces of a newborn infant
What kind of vision do neonates have?
1. Their visual activity is not fully developed
2. They can see levels of contrast and brightness
3. They possess some sense of size constancy
4. They can distinguish and show preference for different colors
How do neonates hear?
They react to and show familiarity to certain kinds of sounds
True or False? infants can distinguish different facial expressions.
True: basic ones
What are states of arousal?
Different degrees of sleep and wakefulness
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 18
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