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54 terms

Acids and Bases Test

STUDY
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active metals
acids generally release H2 gas when they react with
acids to produce salts and water
bases react with
conduct electric current
aqueous solutions of bases
HBr
Which is a binary acid?
HClO2
Which is chlorous acid?
suffix -ate
an acid ending with the suffix -ic produces anion with the
Arrhenius
the traditional definition of acids is based on the observations of
they increase the concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
Which statement about Arrhenius acids is false?
H2SO4
Which is a strong acid?
H2SO4
Which is a diprotic acid?
proton donor
a Bronsted-Lowry acid is a(n)
conjugate base
a species that remains when an acid has lost a proton is a
two
How many conjugate acid-base pairs participate in a Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction?
Bronsted-Lowry
Whose theory of acids and bases do conjugate acids and bases belong to?
proton
the 2 members of a conjugate acid-base pair differ by a
CH3COOH
in the reaction represented by the equation CH3COOH + H2O --> <-- H3O + CH3COO, the conjugate acid of CH3COO is
OH
in the reaction represented by the equation NH3 + H2O --> <-- NH4 + OH, the conjugate base of water is
weak base
the conjugate of a strong acid is a
strong base
the conjugate of a weak acid is a
weak base
in the equation HI + H2O --> H3O + I, HI is a strong acid and I is a
strong acid
in the equation CH3COOH + H2O --> <-- H3O + CH3COO, H2O is a weak base and H3O is a
amphoteric substance
a species that can react as either an acid or a base is a(n)
H+
Which is amphoteric?
base
in the reaction represented by the equation H3PO4 + H2O --> <-- H3O + H2PO4, the molecule H2O acts as a(n)
NaOH and RbOH
which are strong bases?
binary acid
an acid that contains only 2 different elements
oxyacid
an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a 3rd element (usually a nonmetal)
Arrhenius acid
a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in aq. solution
Arrhenius base
a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) in aq. solution
strong acid
an acid that ionizes completely in aq. solution
weak acid
an acid that releases few H+ in aq. solution
Bronsted-Lowry acid
a proton donor
Bronsted-Lowry base
a proton acceptor
Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction
protons are transferred from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base)
monoprotic acid
an acid that can donate only 1 proton (H+) per molecule
polyprotic acid
an acid that can donate more than 1 proton (H+) per molecule
Lewis acid
an atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond
Lew base
an atom, ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond
Lewis acid-base reaction
the formation of 1 or more covalent bonds b/w an electron-pair donor and an electron-pair acceptor
conjugate acid
the species that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton
neutralization reactions
acidic and basic compounds react, neutralizing the other
neutralization
the reaction of hydronium ions and OH- to form water molecules
salt
an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base an an anion from an acid
self-ionization of water
2 water molecules produce a hydronium ion and a OH- by a transfer of a proton
pH
the negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration, [H3O+]
pOH
the negative of the common logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH-]
acid-base indicators
compounds whose colors are sensitive to pH
transition interval
the pH range over which an indicator changes color
pH meter
determines the pH of a solution by measuring the voltage b/w 2 electrodes that are placed in the solution
titration
using a solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of an unknown solution
equivalence point
the point when there are equal molar amounts of acid and base
end point
the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color
standard solution
solution of known concentration
primary solution
a highly purified solid compound used to check the concentration of the known solution