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Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Terms in this set (220)
A correlation coefficient can indicate ________
the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
A little girl at the local elementary school is writing symphonies for full orchestra at age 7. You're curious to know about the child's personality and other psychological qualities. Which type of study would you conduct?
A psychologist who is interested in finding out about the lives and experiences of blended multi-racial families wants to know how such individuals are viewed by their families, friends, and co-workers and how they view themselves. He conducts a series of structured interviews with the various individuals and asks specific questions based on ideas he has that he thinks will be important for understanding this particular life experience. What type of study is this?
A researcher investigates the effects of room temperature on test performance as measured by participants test scores. In this experiment, the dependent variable is ________
Briggs is interested in whether there is a difference in the way males and females carry objects such as backpacks and computer cases, so she sets up a hidden camera on the main mall of the college and videotapes students at various times throughout theday. What type of study is this?
If a researcher found a correlation coefficient of -.85between amount of exercise and weight, this would indicate that the more people exercise, the ________ they weigh.
If the experimenter knows who is in the experimental and control groups and treats them accordingly, she runs the risk of ________
If you receive a telephone call from someone asking that you explain your preferences for certain kinds of products, you are the subject of a ________.
When a researcher has reason to believe that something other than the manipulation of the independent variable has caused a change in the dependent variable, the researcher must look for a(n) ________ as an explanation.
When both the researchers and the participants do not know which conditions the participants are assigned to, the research design is known as ________
A correlation coefficient of .90 indicates a ________ relationship between two variables
As the researcher doing an experiment on performance and sleep habits, Eliza doesn't want to know which group of participants is in the experimental group getting only 4 hours of sleep each night. Eliza should conduct a
Chelsea wants to know if the room temperature in the testing center affects participants test scores. In this experiment, the independent variable is ________
Comparing the population in two different states to examine the prevalence of depression is an example of
Correlation means all of the following EXCEPT that
one variable causes another.
Correlation means that
two variables are related.
Examining household sizes during the early 1900s by reading census reports is an example of
Following a group of kindergarteners every other year until they graduate and evaluating their performance is an example of
Heather is conducting a study on music and memory. She plays different types of music while students memorize lists of words, then tests them again on their retention after 1 hour, 1 day, and 1 week. In this example, which is the independent variable?
the type of music
High rates of attrition are particularly problematic for ________ research.
If a researcher wants to understand if eating more bananas causes increased irritability, what type of study should they perform?
If there is a negative relationship between the temperature and coat sales, it is safe to say that
when the temperature goes up, coat sales go down.
If two different variables are not related at all, they probably have a correlation coefficient of
If you are studying depression rates during the cold winter months, a potential ________ could be the busy holiday season.
If you are studying the impact of a new type of teaching curriculum in the psychology classroom, the classroom where the old curriculum is still taught is considered the
If you participate in a study and find out that the medication you received did not contain actual medication inside, then that pill is considered a
In a study about anxiousness, researchers have participants either read a story about a girl who is stressed about her final exams and other work and family commitments or a classic fairytale. Before the study, they plan to have students self-report on their levels of anxiety, then re-test them after the study to see if the anxious story increased anxiousness levels. In this example, the students reported anxiousness after reading a story is the
In order to study the cause and effect relationship between two variables, a researcher must perform what type of study?
In the example of how violent television programming might affect violent behavior in children, the ________ views violent television programming for a specified time.
Jonas wants to understand the relationship between head size and intelligence. What type of study might he perform?
Maxwell's research group is conducting a study on the relationship between daytime toddler naps and dinnertime appetite. Some groups are assigned to a 1 ½-2 ½ hour afternoon nap, some to a 30-60 minutes nap, or some to no nap at all. The amount they eat for dinner is recorded. In this study, the ________ is the dependent variable and ________ is the control group.
amount of food eaten; no nap
Non-experimental research is called ________ research.
Observational research that focuses on just one individual or a group of people is called a
People generally engage in superstitious behavior, like wearing your lucky red socks while taking a test because you wore them last time you got a high grade, because of a belief in a(n) _______
Preliminary, non-experimental, research that gathers information about behavior is called ________ research.
Research that compares multiple segments of the population at the same time is known as
Ryan is conducting an experiment on the type of breakfast eaten by high schoolers and their wakefulness and alertness during the day. Which is the best way for Ryan to prevent experimenter bias?
He should not know what the students ate for breakfast.
Suzanne is interested in understanding the relationship between hours spent watching t.v. and student grades in elementary school. What type of study might she perform?
The strength and direction of the relationship between two variables is expressed by the ________
There is a ________ correlation between the number of hours of sleep a person gets and how tired they feel.
Unrelated variables probably have a correlation coefficient of
Using existing records to try to answer a research question is known as _______
What measures the effects of the independent variable?
When watching the news one night, you learn about a family with 5 Juilliard musicians. You want to learn more about their environment and personality traits that led them to become such successful musicians. What type of study would you conduct?
Which variable is manipulated by the experimenter?
You are interested in the amount of time students spend talking to other students during class breaks in high school and want to know if girls are more talkative with other girls, or when talking to boys. You set up a camera to record a hundred such interactions. What type of study is this?
You want to learn more about food preferences of those in an entire city. What would the the best way to gather this information?
According to the text, psychology students are most likely to benefit from exposure to 1
critical thinking skills and the scientific method.
According to the text, psychology students are most likely to benefit from exposure to 2
critical thinking skills and evaluating information.
Katie spends most of her daytime hours taking care of her four kids, but enjoys teaching two psychology courses in the evenings at a local community college. Katie likely has a
master's degree in psychology.
Ryan wants to be a high school football coach and school counselor. He will need at least a ________ degree in counseling psychology.
Typically, an adjunct psychology professor will have a
master's degree in psychology
Which type of psychology degree focuses more on the clinical practice and less on research?
According to the ________ model, health and illness are determined by psychological, biological, and social factors.
As a sprinter on the track and field team, Shaun knows that the way he visualizes and thinks about his race can have a major impact on his performance. His coach encourages him to talk to the
Cognitive psychology focuses on
studying thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions.
If Kayla is interested in personality psychology, she is most likely to study
long-standing traits and patterns that propel behavior
If Marco is interested in changes in reasoning and thinking that occur during adolescence, he should specialize in ________ psychology.
Jade plans to major in business then continue on to study ________ so that she can work as a consultant for businesses interested in improving employee motivation and increasing productivity.
Jenny's softball team always came close to winning, but seemed to give up during the 6th inning. Her coach scheduled an appointment with the ________ to discuss performance anxiety.
Marquesas is suffering from anxiety. According to the ________ model, her illness is probably determined by psychological, biological, and social factors.
Social psychology is the study of
how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
Stefan had a terrible work experience when cooking at a local diner while in high school. That experience led him to want to study business management and best practices in improving the workplace environment. He should consider studying
Which area of psychology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior?
Which factors influence health, according to the biopsychosocial model?
interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors
Which of the following are the main psychological domains? 1
biological, cognitive, developmental, social and personality, mental and physical health
Which of the following are the main psychological domains? 2
biological, cognitive, developmental, social and personality, mental and physical health
Which of the following topics are included in the biological domain of psychology? 1
Which of the following topics are included in the biological domain of psychology? 2
Which psychological domain would include a study of learning and conditioning?
Which psychological domain would include a study of memory and intelligence?
Which questions would a biopsychologist most likely address when studying depression?
Does stress or lack of exercise affect the nervous system and hormones to either cause or prevent depression?
Which questions would a biopsychologist most likely address when studying schizophrenia?
Does stress or lack of exercise affect the nervous system and hormones to either cause or prevent schizophrenia?
Which type of psychologist may be involved in mediating a custody battle?
Which type of psychologist would most likely be asked to serve as an expert witness during a court case?
________is the area of psychology that focuses on studying thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and our actions.
________ is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
________ psychology seeks to study the genetic causes of behavior.
________ psychology seeks to study the ultimate biological causes of a behavior.
Each of our 46 ________ have a sequence of DNA, made up of ________, which determine traits and physical characteristics.
Epigenetics examines gene expression and how those with identical genes may have different
If Greg's mother has a cleft chin (genotype Bb) and his father does not (genotype bb), what are the chances that Greg has a cleft chin?
Most traits are controlled by more than just one gene, meaning that they are
One of the best ways to answer questions associated with the nature-nurture debate is to complete twin studies, especially with ________ twins.
One reason the nature-nurture debates continues is because it is
difficult to study because people cannot be assigned to various genetic and environmental conditions.
People born with a high genetic risk for schizophrenia were ________ likely to develop schizophrenia if they were raised in a healthy family environment than if they were raised in a disturbed family environment.
The idea that Sophia is born with high genetic potential for intelligence that determines the boundaries of her intelligence, but that her environment interacts with those genes to determine wherein her intelligence falls within those bounds is known as
range of reaction.
The study of how the same genotype may lead to different phenotypes is known as
The study of "nature" in the nature-nurture debate is really a study of the ________ bases of behavior.
Which of the following is a major problem with arriving at a conclusive scientific answer to the nature-nurture debate?
Humans cannot easily be randomly assigned to different genetic and environmental conditions.
Which of the following is an example of the influence of nature, or genetics, on a person?
A child of divorced parents shows the same tendency toward extroversion as her twin sister livingacross the country with her father.
Which types of twins have the same DNA, and are valuable in studying the influence of environmental factors on genetics?
________ study how the interaction of genes and the environment cause individual differences in behavior.
An axon is a ________
long, tubelike structure extending from a neuron's cell body
The branchlike fibers extending in clusters from the neuron's cell body are called ________
The soma is a _______
neuron's cell body
Which of the following is the correct order of events describing the movement of an electrical charge through a neuron?
dendrite, cell body, axon
Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve impulses when one neuron communicates with another?
Dendrite, cell body, axon
Agonists and antagonists mimic or impede neurotransmitters by binding to ________
Drugs designed to restore neurotransmitter balance in the brain are known as
During action potential, positively charged ________ ions move inside the cell.
During resting potential, before the electric charge is sent, the inside of a neuron has a ________ charge.
If the threshold of excitation is reached, action potential begins, which causes the inside of the cell to temporarily have a ________ charge.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs that
prevent unused neurotransmitters from being transported back to the neuron.
The input sites of neurons where signals are received from other neurons are known as
What is the electrical signal that typically moves from the cell body down the axon to the axon terminals?
Which of the following help neurons line up closely with each other, provide insulation to neurons, transport nutrients and waste products, and mediate immune responses?
________, which play a supportive role in the nervous system, vastly outnumber ________.
Glial cells; neurons
A noninvasive technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain's blood flow and oxygen levels is called ________.
functional MRI (fMRI)
Doctors want to take a closer look at a schizophrenic patient's brain to monitor the activity of neurotransmitters while she experiences hallucinations. First, they will give her an injection of a radioactive substance. Which technique will they use?
positron emission tomography (PET)
After a severe car accident, Tristan struggles to comprehend what people are saying when they speak to him. He probably has damage to
Carrie processes visual information using her
Damage to Broca's area may cause
Devin processes the pain of a fresh paper cut on his finger in the
One reason smells often evoke memories is that the sense of smell
is routed through the limbic system.
Research shows that both hemispheres of the brain are involved in most tasks, but split-brain studies demonstrate that
the right hemisphere is mostly non-verbal.
Stephen has a tumor in his brain and doctors want to assess what areas are impacted. They want a clear picture of the brain, but also want to see changes in the brain's blood flow. Whatimaging technique will they use?
functional MRI (fMRI)
Structures that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine and aid in movement are the substantia nigra and the ________, both found in the midbrain.
ventral tegmental area
The ________ helps maintain the body's level of homeostasis and regulates things like body temperature and appetite.
The ________ is involved in regulating the sleep/wake cycle and plays an important role in arousal and alertness.
The ________ plays an important role in higher-level thinking and decision making.
The biggest part of the brain, called the ________, contains the cerebral cortex, which is ________ in humans that other animals.
The corpus callosum
is a thick band of neural fibers enabling communication between the two brain hemispheres.
The substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and reticular formation can all be found in the
The temporal lobe specializes in
Where is the primary visual cortex housed?
Which type of brain imaging is especially helpful in the study of sleep disorders?
an electroencephalograph (EEG)
You can describe something seen in your left visual field with ease because the ________ relays the information to your right hemisphere.
A popular, new personality test consistently yields the same results when given to the same people over a period of several months and when administered to similar people. The test asks so many cultural questions, however, that many think the test does not accurately measure personality. This test has________ reliability and ________ validity.
An experiment is reliable if it
can be replicated by another researcher and provide similar results.
An experiment is valid if it
measures what it is supposed to measure.
Francis is studying the relationship between personality traits and drug abuse. If she that there is a significant relationship between these two variables, that means her study would have a p-value around ________ or less.
Hart is interested in the role of relationships in preventing heart disease. As her patients come into her office in Bluebell, Alabama, she asks them two questions: Are you a in a relationship? Have you experienced any heart problems in the last 8 years? Based on her findings, she concludes that relationships cause cardiovascular (heart) problems. One issue with her methodology is that the results are not generalizable. What does this mean?
Her results may not be true for the entire population
If Maria conducts a study and discovers the results seem consistent enough to not have been caused by chance, she can conclude that her findings are
If Miguel wants to replicated Sara's study, which section of Sara's research article will be most valuable to him?
If an experiment can be easily replicated by another researcher and provide similar results, it is considered
If an experiment measures what it is supposed to measure, it is considered
If every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate in a study, then it is considered a
Random assignment is important in grouping participants in a research study because
it balances out the differences that might naturally exist between participants.
Stuart wants to study whether there is a relationship between the number of hours a high school senior spends on social networking sites and their grade point average. He obviously cannot study every 12th grader, so instead he will select a smaller ________ of seniors to study.
The likelihood that a research finding was due to random chance rather than being due to an actual observed change is called the
The pattern of variation in data is called the
What is the abstract of a scholarly article?
The section with a summary of the whole article.
What is the correct term for a pattern of variation that is noted in a given data set?
When the findings in a research study are believed to be due to an actual phenomenon under investigation and not due to chance or random occurrence, this is called ________
Where in a scholarly article would you expect to find a concise summary of the entire experiment?
Which section of a research article includes an explanation of the procedures used to conduct the experiment?
Why is it important to use random assignment when determining which research participants will comprise the different treatment groups in the study?
Random assignment balances out the differences that might naturally exist between participants.
A person's conscious and voice of reason and goodness is the
Abraham Maslow is best known for
proposing a hierarchy of human needs in motivating behavior.
According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following is a way to access the unconscious mind? 1
According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following is a way to access the unconscious mind? 2
seemingly innocent slips of the tongue
B.F. Skinner is to ________ as Pavlov is to ________.
operant conditioning; classical conditioning
Functionalism focused on
how mental activities help a person adapt to its environment
Humanism which developed as a reaction to the behaviorism and psychodynamic schools of psychology emphasized that ________.
each person is inherently good and motivated to be a healthy functioning individual
I provide Ralph with the positive reinforcement of a candy bar when he does something I like. I punish him by squirting him with a squirt gun when he does something I don't like. I am applying the principles of ________ in an attempt to modify Ralph's behavior.
Pavlov is to ________ and B.F. Skinner is to ________.
classical conditioning; operant conditioning
Proponents of the early school of ________ psychology argue that our thoughts, feelings, and motives are important in understanding human behavior and that more than just observable actions should be studied.
Psychoanalytic theory focuses on ________ and early childhood experiences.
a person's unconscious
Psychoanalytic theory focuses on a person's unconscious and ________.
early childhood experiences
Ryan notices that a lot of people he sees avoid making eye contact while they walk by him on their cell phones. He develops a tentative explanation that people are too focused on their conversation to be distracted by an outside passerby. Ryan's observation is an example of a
are supported by evidence.
Susanna's parents give her an allowance every day that her bed is made and her room is picked up. Her parents are utilizing principles of
The Sea World animal trainers use rewards (reinforcements) to teach whales, sea lions and dolphins to perform tricks. These training techniques are based on principles from which early school of psychology?
The cognitive revolution turned the emphasis in psychology away from the behavioral focus on only observable behavior to instead
acknowledge the existence of internal mental states.
The ego is
the rational and reasonable part of personality
The focus on how mental activities help a person adapt to his or her environment is known as
The id is the
unconscious part of personality responsible for drives like sex and aggression
The most accurate definition of psychology is the scientific study of
the mind and behavior
The rational and reasonable part of personality is known as the
The psychodynamic school of psychology emphasizes ________.
the unconscious and early childhood experiences
The superego is
the unconscious part of personality responsible for drives like sex and aggression
The unconscious and early childhood experiences are emphasized by the ________.
psychodynamic school of psychology
Two people may look at the identical image but perceive different things. This phenomenon is studied by
The unconscious part of personality responsible for drives like sex and aggression is the
Which of the following are major areas of interest in cognitive psychology? 1
knowledge and memory
Which of the following are major areas of interest in cognitive psychology? 2
perception and language
Which of the following statements most closely aligns with humanism?
Each person is inherently good and motivated to be a healthy functioning individual.
Which person was most interested in studying learned behavior?
Which perspective within psychology emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all people?
Which researcher was more likely to use recording devices and objective measures to examine the mind?
Which saying best fits gestalt psychology?
"The whole is other than the sum of its parts." -Koffka
Which school of psychology was more likely to focus on the operation of the entire mind instead of specific parts?
Which school of thought emphasized how people process information?
Which school of thought emphasized observable behavior and objectivity?
Which school of thought emphasized the development of a healthy and effectively-functioning person?
Which school of thought emphasized the unconscious influences on thought and behavior?
Which school of thought emphasized the use of introspection to categorize and break down sensations into basic elements?
While behaviorism focused on only observable behavior, cognitive psychology
acknowledges the existence of internal mental states
Wilhelm Wundt's usage of introspection to measure the workings of the mindan experiment is reliable is known as
William James is best known for
You spend weeks teaching your new dog how to roll over. The rewards and reinforcers you use to shape her behavior are based on which early school of psychology?
_______ is the name for Wundt's approach of asking patients to look inward and describe their feelings in order to understand consciousness.
________ psychologist Kurt Koffka is known for saying "the whole is other than the sum of its parts."
The peripheral nervous system is composed of the
somatic and autonomic nervous systems
________ psychologists emphasized the importance of thoughts and internal mental states instead of just observable actions.
The terms autonomic and somatic refer to the two main subdivisions of the ________.
peripheral nervous system
A psychologist who studies the interaction between hormones and behavior is called a
After a stressful day at school and work, Kristen attends a yoga class. At the end of the class, Kristen lays quietly on her mat while paying close attention to her breathing. Her ________ nervous system is activated.
Conscious and voluntary movements are associated with the ________ nervous system.
If Julian is startled by a rat in his kitchen, his ________ nervous system kicks into action.
Justin is listening to the radio when he hears the sound of sirens, which he mistakes for the police turning on their sirens behind him. He immediately presses on the brakes, has an accelerated heartbeat and higher blood pressure, as well as sweaty palms. His reaction is known as
the fight-or-flight response.
Physiological changes such as those activated when Sarah hears spooky sounds while she's out for a run (her pupils dilate, her heart rate and blood pressure increase, etc.) are known as
the fight-or-flight response.
The ________ nervous system is involved in the relay of sensory and motor information to the central nervous system.
The chemical substances that are secreted into the bloodstream by the endocrine system are known as
The pituitary gland, sometimes called the "master gland," carries out instructions from the ________.
The state of equilibrium, in which biological conditions (such as body temperature) are maintained at optimal levels is known as
What is the scientific study of the interaction between hormones and behavior called?
A ________ is a general, tentative explanation that proposes explanations for observed behavior that can be used to predict future outcomes, whereas a/an ________ is a specific prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is to be tested.
A psychology class participates in an experiment measuring bystander intervention at the mall. They tell people the experiment is about fashion trends, collect data about the ways number of times a subject intervenes when a bystander needs help, then thank the participants for their time. In this example, the class forgot to ________ in order to resolve the ________ in the study.
debrief participants; deception
A theory is a/an
set of ideas that proposed an explanation for observed phenomena
A(n) ________ is a well-developed set of ideas that proposes an explanation for observed phenomena.
In order for an experiment to be considered fair,
all data should be considered when evaluating a hypothesis.
In order for an experiment to be considered falsifiable,
it should be capable of being disproved.
In order for an experiment to be considered predictable,
it should make assumptions about future events
Informed consent means clearly explaining all of the following EXCEPT
explaining the hypothesis to the participants
Jane thinks that a longer wait time at the doctor's office will result in more negative reviews for the office, no matter the expertise or quality of the doctor. What steps should Jane follow to conduct a study consistent with the scientific method?
make an observation, ask a question, form a hypothesis, do an experiment, analyze the results, prove or disprove the hypothesis
What best describes the purpose of the IRB?
to review proposals for research that involves human participants
Which best describes the basic steps of the scientific method?
make an observation, ask a question, form a hypothesis, do an experiment, analyze the results, prove or disprove the hypothesis
Which organization reviews research conducted using animal subjects?
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