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Ch.2-3 Health and Illness
Terms in this set (128)
An experiment is a research method in which;
a researcher manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior
a test that measures or predicts what is supposed to measure or predict is said to have a high degree of:
If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of
which research would be most appropriate for studying the relationship b/w the religious beliefs of a group of people and their attitudes toward same-sex marriage?
in the study described in this video clip, the major IV was ___ and the major DV was ____
gingko biloba; memory
To provide a baseline against which they can evaluate the effects of a specific independent variable, experimenters make use of a(n)
To minimize any differences between participants who were in different conditions in this study, the researchers used:
a statement of a predicted relationship b/w an IV and DV such as "playing violent video games" increases aggressive behavior - is an example of:
which technique involves repeating an earlier research study to determine if its results are reliable?
Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are uniformed as to which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of
a negative correlation b/w two variables means that their values move:
in opposite direction
liselle finds that 60 new cases of heatstroke occurred outside the beef cattle show barn during the second of the first week. What is Liselle documenting?
the strength of correlation coefficient is indicated by __ and the direction of a correlation is indicated by
the absolute value of the coefficient, whether the coefficient is positive or negative
what would a person in a wait-list control group most likely experience?
no treatment during the course of experiment
Jerome, an epidemiologist, complies the number of people per county who contracted food poisoning during the previous 3 months. His report is a record of:
Marisol investigated the exercise behaviors of middle school kids. First observed a group of 5 6 graders and recorded the # of minutes each child
qualitative and quantitative
Jesse wants to test the idea that intensive social media use hampers sleep quality
no dependent variable has been measured
Annika is investigating the influence of hours spent mediating
which coefficient represents the strongest correlation?
which characteristic is a qualitative variable?
describing one's romantic relationship
Which correlation coefficient b/w height and blood
a researcher proposes that consumption of 8 oz of ice cream each day during pregnancy
physicians have observed that some forms of knee surgery
a placebo group
a detailed plan of a study which specific the experimental, data collection, and sampling methods is known as
if a researcher was interested in learning how attitudes toward exercise change
a correlation coefficient represents two characteristics: ___ and ___
the strength of the association b/w the variables;
kara is studying the experiences of hospice caregivers
which method of data collection is correctly paired with its description?
descriptive, gathering information about health attitudes and behaviors
in a study which some college students are pampered
whether students were pampered or not
the # of deaths attributes to a specific cause is referred to as:
Dr. Triandis wants to study health info seeking
a set of ideas that explain the world in which we live is:
prevalence refers to the total # of:
diagnosed cases of a disease or condition in a given time frame
when the behavior of a group of research participants is measure over time this is:
quasi-experiments can accomplish all except?
what term do epidemiologist use to describe the proportion of a population that had a given medical condition at some point in their lives?
evidence-based practice results from:
the conscientious application of current scientific findings to health related decision making
researchers have found that as the # of cigaretss smokes increases, the risk also increases
Longitudinal epidemiological studies that begin with people who are disease-free and who then are followed for a period of years are called:
a health psychologist interviews assembly-line workers
cohort effects are a potential problem most commonly associated with which type of research design?
a study in which participants are unaware of the hypothesis being studied
may comopptes a correlation coefficient of .85 with a p value below her predetermined cutoff
a strong positive correlation that is statistically significant
incidence is to ___ as prevalence is to _
which is an example of cross sectional design?
Dr. huang assessed the long cape city fo the 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders
which principle is NOT a component of evidence-based practice:
relying on anecdotal advcie
which statement is true about research ethics
applies to both humans and animals
Dr. Klien is conducting a longitudinal study
another name for independent variable is
researchers who conduct quantitative research typically know ahead of time what ideas are testing, this is
qualitative data collection
which characteristic defines a quantitative study?
a health outcome,behavior, or attitude is measured in some way
Mai tests the hypothesis
no independent variable has been manipulated
which question would most likely be used in a quantitative study of smoking behavior?
on an average day, approx how many cigs do you smoke?
a correlation coefficient of .00 means there is ___ b/w the variables
compared to the others, who is statistically least likely to engage in the regular practice and maintenance of preventive health care and dental care
someone who just graduated from college
the number of calories needed by he body to carry out basic functions such as breathing, heart pumping, and the conversion of food into usable energy is called:
basal metabolic rate
the process through which pathways in the brain reorganize and new pathways develop in response to experience is called:
The procedure in which a lighter camera is used to examine the lining of the colon and rectum is known as:
self-efficacy refers to:
beliefs about ones ability to reach a goal
how many teaspoons of sugar are contained in an average 12-ounce can of soda?
Sondra has been exercising regularly, heart rate has decreased, blood pressure has lowered, and "good" cholesterol level has improved. All of these benefits highlight the effect on which system:
which statement regarding the need for sleep as we age is true?
older adults spend less time in deep sleep
social and shared activities increase the likelihood of healthy eating behaviors. specific activities include limiting time spent watching tv or using computers, getting adequate nighttime sleep, and:
eating dinner together
Bella was encouraged to try new foods when she was a child, her son is very picky and will not try new foods:
malnutrition is the cause of over __ of childhood deaths in developing countries where essential foods are unavailable
from 2014-2017, the number of Americans with food insecurity __ by approx __
one's muscles are relatively more tense and most body systems are inactive during which stage of sleep?
spontaneous activities of the motor areas of the brain may produce a sensation of falling and jerky movements occurs during which phase of sleep?
the human sleep cycle repeats itself about every:
90 to 120 minutes
Esther is beginning a new career regimen focusing one exercises that builds and condition muscle mass by using her own body weight. this form of exercise is known as __ training
more than three quarters of the deaths related to skin cancer are attributed to:
which guideline is not one of the dietary recommendations proposed by the world health organization (WHO)?
try to burn twice as much energy as you eat
what cognitive benefit of exercise is especially relevant to older adults?
prevention of brain atrophy
fat tissue is a strong producer of protein molecules that help regulate the immune system, these molecules are called:
how do basal cell carcinomas differ from squamous cell carcinomas?
basal cell carcinomas are raised, waxy, pink bumps, where squamous are red rough scaly lesions
heather was a competitive athlete throughout her early teens and twenties, the pressures of her job mounted, her diet has changed, what is the name given to the weight gain she is experiencing?
which condition is not a warning sign of sun damage and precancerous skin lesions?
increased sensitivity to light or water
graces doctor suggests that she measure her body compositions with a technique that utilized impedance. what techniques is the doctor suggesting?
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
which substance is most responsible for the signaling of sleep readiness?
a noncancerous tumor in the inner lining of the colon or rectum is known as a
a large-scaly of middle aged Scottish men investigated the link b/w health and inactivity. which is not one of the findings of that study?
the time the men spent in front of the computer being sedentary was only time spent at work and did not include any leisure time
among Americans woman nearly _ will get breast cancer during their lifetimes, making it the second leading cause of cancer
1 in 8
According to recommendations by the national sleep foundation which group is properly paired with the average number of hours of daily sleep its members need?
preschoolers - 10 to 11 hrs
keneesha has not been ill during the last several years and has not contracted the flu or other diseases. these benefits highlight the effect on the _ system
which excuse is not one of the common reasons people give for not exercising regularly?
fear of being mocked
the 5-10 minute transitional phase of sleep during which a person may have sudden jerky movements or sensation of falling is known as:
exercise benefits the respiratory system in all of the ways expect?
increased lung size
Jamie expressed to her physician; glutefemorial fat or fat on the _ is a sign of strong fertility and metabolic health in women
hips and buttocks
amal is a healthy young adults who exercises regularly and eats a balanced diet. she only eats when she feels hungry and stops when satisfied; she is an _ eater
Assunta has been on a diet
during stage 2 sleep, which lasts around 20 min each time we cycle through it:
sleep spindles are generated
which exercise trend is properly matched with its country of origin?
nationwide radio stretching - japan
actions that promote good health, longevity and well being are collectively known as health - ___ behaviors
lack of exercise may be a factor in ____ of annual premature deaths worldwide, a rate roughly equal to the number of deaths caused by smoking
Courtney has noticed that, as stress at work increased, she has an inability to control her desires, emotions, and behaviors as they relate to her eating. She is struggling with:
on average, which group of people needs the most hours of sleep?
Jorge is extremely focused on the amount of food and calories he consumes each day. he is an ____ eater
patterns of Americans meat consumption show that ___ is consumed across sociocultural groups to a greater extent than other meats
the basic behaviors that lead to good health include maintaining a healthy weight, eating foods, avoiding snacking, eating breakfast, exercising regularly, quitting smoking, getting enough sleep, and
drinking in moderation
which statement regarding body mass measurement is true?
BMI is more accurate at classifying women than men
how does abdominal fat contribute to developing dementia?
greater abdominal, measures by a larger waistline, doubles the risk of dementia
which indicators of abnormality are influenced by culture and society
all of the above (maladaptiveness, violating social norms/rules/laws
the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health-related behaviors in a given population
what is an example of comorbidity?
all of the above
which of the following is not a disadvantage of classification?
what is an example of proximal risk factor?
b an c (severe difficulties with a marital partner, disappointment at school or work)
which parenting style is most likely to result in a positive developmental outcome?
which method of treatment is focused on a patients social, individual, and occupational needs?
when an individual learns how to achieve a desired goal, this is called:
which of the following is an example of a necessary cause of depression?
none of the above
what is assimilation in the cognitive - behavioral perspective?
distort new data to make them fit to existing frameworks
yesterday 80% of students reported experiencing test anxiety at the moment; this is an example of
after being pecked by a bird, a dog looks afraid whenever they see/hear a bird. the sight/sound of the bird is the ___ and the pecks is best described as ___
conditioned stimulus' unconditioned
after you saw your dog get pecked, , you develop a schema that large birds are dangerous, even though you've seen other birds that aren't; this is a concept of
what is the scanning technique that measures metabolic processes to appraise how well an organ is functioning?
what is the difference b/w the behavioral and cognitive behavioral perspective?
behavioral believe that only the study of directly observable behavior, cognitive relies on emphasis of higher mental processes
Mary Jane is a teacher, after being harassed by one of her students, she goes to Publix and takes it out on the sub guy; which ego defense mechanism is being displayed?
which parenting style is high in control, low in warmth
what are unstructured assessment interviews?
typically subjective and do not follow a predetermined set of questions
___ are day to day activities, demands, and desires that put someone at risk of relapse
which activity is an example of a negative health behavior?
rates of adherence to health-related change tend to be lowest for:
Tim has been hospitalized for alcohol intoxication three times In the last month, he insists is due to food poisoning. what stage of the trans theoretical model of behavior change is he in?
Samantha has a family history of breast cancer and is careful to get annual screenings. her behavior is an example of?
practicing disease prevention
Marisol is thinking about drinking less but is concerned about whether her friends will support. this is an example of what theory of planned behavior
what attribute does not tend to contribute to health disparities?
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