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APUSH Building A Nation

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The Critical Period
time between the adoption of the Articles of Confederation and the adoption of the Federal Constitution during which the states were held together by "a rope of sand"; it was a time of unrest and discord, especially concerning relations with Britain and the national debt, A term coined by John Quincy Adams referring to the 1780s as "make or break" for the US. Between the end of war and GW's inauguration-the future of the country was in balance. Called this b/c there were a bunch of crises economically and in terms of foreign policy.
Robert Morris
A wealthy Philadelphia merchant who was appointed to as superintendent of finance by Congress in 1781. He had the idea that the states should stop issuing paper money and start using gold and silver. He also pushed Congress to charter the Bank of North America and made federal bonds look more attractive to investors.
Northwest Ordinance
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
Shays's Rebellion
A 1786 rebellion in which an army of 1500 disgruntled and angry farmers marched to Springfield, Massachusetts, and forcibly restrained the state court from foreclosing mortgages on their farms.
Annapolis Convention
Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation
Constitutional Convention
1787. A convention in the Pennsylvania State House where the Articles on Confederation were supposed to be revised. Instead they were thrown out and a new constitution was drafted
James Madison
"Father of the Constitution". His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
Virginia Plan
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation to the population in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states
New Jersey Plan
A framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states; its key points were a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, the establishment of the acts of Congress as the "supreme law" of the land, and a supreme judiciary with limited power.
Connecticut or Great Compromise
provided for separation of powers and a bicameral legislature. The upper house (Senate) would provide equal representation for all states. The lower House of Representatives would base representation on population. Written by cobbler Roger Sherman.
3/5 Compromise
A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which __ the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
Federalists and AntiFederalists
Argued for and against the Constitution and over the power of the national government.
The Federalist Papers
A series of eighty-five political essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
Alexandar Hamilton
At a convention in Annapolis in 1786, this political heavyweight, along with James Madison, secured the calling of another convention, this time to be held in Philadelphia, where the focus of the meeting was to revise and repair the existing Articles of Confederation. First secretary of treasury, a federalist, and crucial in the creation of the First Bank of the United States
John Jay
Also one of the supporters of the new Constitution and along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison was part of making the Federalist paper essays, 1st chief justice of the Supreme Court, a signer of the Treaty of Paris
Judiciary Act of 1789
A law that established the federal court system and the number of Supreme Court justices and that provided for the appeal of certain state court decisions to the federal courts
Bill of Rights
A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
Washington's Cabinet
Henry Knox (Secretary of War/Defense; Thomas Jefferson (Sec. of State); Alexander Hamilton (Sec. of Treasury); Edmund Randolph (Attorney General), people Washington appointed to help him out with the presidency
Report on the Public Credit
(1789) Alexander Hamilton's outlined plan for the federal govt. to borrown money to cover debts, and that would also convince american investors that they would always be paid back fully.
Assumption Plan
Part of Hamilton's economic theory. Stated that the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid off their debts.
Strict and Loose Interpretation
one interpretation of the Constitution meant that people believed that the gov't only had the power to control what they explicitly said in the Constitution. The other interpretation meant that the gov't had implied powers that weren't necessarily spelled out in the Constitution
Necessary and Proper Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
Report on Manufacturers
A proposal written by Hamilton promoting protectionism in trade by adding tariffs to imported goods in order to protect American industry Though congress did not do anything with it, the report later influenced later industrial policies.
tariffs
A tax on imported goods to protect domestic industries and/or generate revenue
French Revolution
1789-1799. Period of political and social upheaval in France, during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions.
Proclamation of Neutrality
- A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France that had begun with the French Revolution. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to warring countries.
Jay's Treaty
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
Whiskey Rebellion
(GW) In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
National Bank
(1791) part of Hamilton's economic plan that provided a safe storage for government funds, serve as an agent for the gov. in the collection, movement and expenditure of tax money and finance new and expanding business enterprises (speeding up national economic growth). It was partly owned by the government and by investors. It's constitutionality was questioned
Pinckney's Treaty
established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
Battle of Fallen Timbers and "Mad" Anthony Wayne
1794 attack against the Miamis Indians by an American General. The British refused to shelter Indians fleeing from the battle. Ended the alliance between the Indians and the British.
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.
Citizen Genet
A French diplomat who came to the U.S. 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall him after he began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports. However, Washington later relented and allowed him U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest him.
Washington's Farewell Address
-Washington retired from office after his 2nd term in 1797 a letter. In it he reacted sharply to Republicans, by warning against international entanglements (more specifically, denouncing against the Republicans that had been conspiring with the French to frustrate the Federalist diplomatic program.and against the dangers of permanent alliances with foreign nations. (Ex. The Jay Treaty)Warned against sectionalism (Ex: put down the Whiskey Rebellion). Temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in "extraordinary emergencies". He also spoke against partisan bitterness. (Federalist and Republican parties) 1775-1825