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Evolution of Psychology
Terms in this set (40)
the branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems. [compare basic research]
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base [compare applied research].
any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism
The scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning; as a theoretical orientation, behaviorism is based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science and (2) emphasizes observable behavior that can be objectively measured. Emerged from the pioneering work of Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner.
A branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavioral genetics) and psychological processes. Emphasizes genetics, the roles of various parts of the brain, and the structure and function of individual nerve cells.
This integrated viewpoint incorporates various levels of analysis [biological, psychological, and socio-cultural] and offers a more complete picture of any given behavior or mental process.
a branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
Refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity (including perception, thinking, memory, and language) linked with cognition.
The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. The cognitive perspective compares the mind to a computer that encodes, processes, and stores information. Cognitive psychologists emphasize thinking, perceiving, and information processing.
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations.
the scientific study of human development throughout the life span. Once focused primarily on child development, but today also examines adolescence, adulthood, and old age.
the study of how psychological processes affect and an enhance teaching and learning; examines curriculum design, teacher training, achievement testing, student motivation, classroom diversity, and other aspects of the educational process.
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation. Empiricism is crucial to the scientific method that psychology embraced in the late 19th century. To say that psychology is empirical means that its conclusions are based on direct observation rather than on reasoning, speculation, traditional beliefs, or common sense.
The tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection. Influenced by Charles Darwin, it emphasizes the role played by natural selection and adaptation in the evolution of behavior and mental processes. Examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations.
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method. Encompasses topics that have traditionally been of interest to psychology such as sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation and emotion.
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function and how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish; based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
Focuses on how psychological factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of physical health and the causation, prevention and treatment of illness.
human factors psychology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
the psychological perspective that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedoms and their potential for growth. Stresses the importance of self-esteem, free will, an choice in human behavior. Emerged from the pioneering work of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to socio-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival, are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time.
nature vs. nurture
the long-standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Describes and understands an individual's consistency in behavior.
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Examines the influence of genetic factors on behavior and the role of the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and bodily chemicals in the regulation of behavior.
A movement that uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human experience.
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders, practiced by physicians who often provide medical (e.g., drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders. Influenced by the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud, emphasizes the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality.
the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it ; the study of the mind and the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems; the term comes from two Greek words: psyche meaning the soul and logos referring to the study of a subject.
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, behavior, traits and capacities, usually through the development of psychological tests. Psychometrics is involved with the design of tests to assess personality, intelligence and a wide range of abilities. It is also concerned with the development of new techniques for statistical analysis.
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking; focuses on interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior. Typically looks at attitude formation, attitude change, prejudice, conformity, attraction, aggression, intimacy, and group behavior.
a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
According to Freud, the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
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