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MAC 143 REVIEW QUESTIONS EXAM 1 MIAMI UNIVERSITY
Terms in this set (16)
Define Culture, mass media, and mass communication, and explain their interrelationships
Culture: the differing ways individuals, groups, and societies use for daily life and to express their values (symbols, language, art)
Mass Media: The industries that produce culture and cultural products (aka Tv shows, movies, magazines, newspapers, news programs)
Mass Communication: The process of delivering cultural messages to a bigger audience through channels of communication such as newspapers, orally, or tv programs
All three are interconnected through culture. They all pertain to culture and the means by which we create and absorb culture and information through differing channels. Culture is heavily influenced by the industries and the information they give us, also known as agenda setting.
What key technological breakthroughs accompanied the transition to the print and electronic eras? Why were these changes significant?
Farmers moved from the rural areas towards big cities and urbanization. The rise of the industrial revolution helped usher in the new era of the electronic era. The telegraph is the main thing known for bringing about the electronic era, and also the rise of film and radio. Technology centralized control of communication in the hands of the corporations .Separated communication from transportation, transformed "information into a commodity, a 'thing' that could be bought or sold irrespective of its uses or meaning", made it easier for military operations.
Explain the limitations of the old linear model of mass communication.
The linear model was explained as "senders (producers) transmitted messages through a mass media channel (newspapers, magazines, radio) to large groups of receivers (readers and viewers)." That is not the same for today because images and texts can be intercepted and crisscrossed with opposing opinions and ads. Senders don't have the power to influence audiences as much and are not sure how their messages will be perceived.
Describe the development of a mass medium from emergence to convergence.
Emergence is the group of people who have an idea, and then they try to find a way to make that idea happen or solve a problem. Mass mediums are the middle man between emergence and convergence. They are the ones who take the idea and figure out how to market it to an audience and sell it or make people think it is useful. Convergence stage is where older forms of media transform into new forms of media (Ex: the NYTimes can still be read as a newspaper, but is also available online)
What are the chief differences between modern and postmodern values?
Modern period is defined by the industrial revolution and the spread of information via newspapers and radios. Everyone worked in factories and lived in big cities. Communication could only reach nationwide, and they believed in individualism, rationalism and efficiency. Postmodern period is defined through the digital revolution, where info can be spread globally now, and sent through a click of a button. Information is abundant and can be found through numerous channels. They believed in diversity, nostalgia, and paradox.
What are the five steps in the critical process? Which is the most difficult and why?
Description, Analysis, Interpretation, Evaluation, and Engagement.
Description: paying close attention, taking notes, and researching the subject under study
Analysis: discovering and focusing on significant patterns that emerge from the description stage
Interpretation: asking and answering "what does that mean?" and "So what?" questions about ones findings
This is the most difficult stage because it involves the most critical thinking of what are the senders intentions with the information they are sending, and asking why it is important or relevant
Evaluation: arriving at a judgement about whether something is good, bad, or mediocre, which involves subordinating one's personal taste to the critical "bigger picture" resulting from the first three steps
Engagement: taking some action that connects our critical perspective with our role as citizens and watchdogs to question our media institutions, adding our voice to the process of shaping the cultural environment
What were the major influences that led to scientific media research?
Walter Lippman' book Liberty and the News, which called on journalists to operate more like scientific researchers (1920). His second book, Public Opinion (1922), was the first to apply the principles of psychology to journalism.
What are the differences between the hypodermic-needle model and the minimal-effects model in the history of media research?
The hypodermic-needle model believes that society is weak and susceptible to be influenced largely by the mass media. The minimal-effects model believes that the mass media has limited effects on audiences, instead reinforcing preexisting beliefs held by the audience instead of changing them. The hypodermic-needle model is highly outdated and not believed by many anymore, while many still believe in the minimal-effects theory.
What are the differences between experiments and surveys as media research strategies?
Experiments work well to substantiate direct cause-effect hypotheses, however, they cannot be applied to a larger population due to their test subjects often being a select group (ie. College students). Surveys however, can relate to the larger population and give data that can be applied to everyone, not just a specific group. Experiments work for short-term studies, Surveys work for long-term.
What is content analysis, and why is it significant?
Content analysis: a method of coding and measuring media content. Tries to measure things, count things, and come up with a statistical answer. DOES NOT TRY TO INTERPRET THE MESSAGES. It is significant because it focuses on specific themes in the media, such as violence in television, and its way it affects the audience.
What are the main ideas behind social learning theory, agenda-setting, the cultivation effect, the spiral of silence, and the third-person effect?
All are forms of Contemporary Media Effects Theories.
Social Learning Theory: there is a link between mass media and behavior
Agenda-setting: The media manipulates the agenda for what is important ("newsworthy") and what isn't. They focus their attention on certain topics or events, leading the public to believe they are the most important, leading the discussion.
Ex: Black Lives Matter protests and police brutality
The Cultivation Effect: heavy viewing of tv leads individuals to perceive the world in ways that are consistent with television portrayals
The Spiral of Silence: If a person believes their views are in the minority, they won't speak up about them.
The Third-Person Effect: people believe that others are more affected by media messages than they themselves are
What are some strengths and limitations of modern media research?
It has made valuable contributions to our understanding of mass media thanks to funding for studies on the effects on young people. Funding restrictions can lead to gaps in research though, and the inability to address how media affect communities and social institutions.
Why did cultural studies develop in opposition to media effects research?
Social scientists in the 1930s began to warn us about the limits of gathering data and charting trends, particularly when these kinds of research products served only advertisers and media organizations and tended to be focused on individual behavior. This ignored questions like "where are the institutions taking us?' and "where do we want them to take us?'. It focuses on how people make meaning, understand reality, and order experience through using cultural symbols in the media.
What are the features of cultural studies?
It focuses on investigation of daily experience, especially on issues of race, gender, class and sexuality, and on the unequal arrangements of power and status in contemporary society. It emphasizes how some social and cultural groups have been marginalized and ignored throughout history.
How is textual analysis different from content analysis?
Textual analysis interprets cultural messages in books, movies, or tv shows. Content analysis does NOT interpret meaning, but simply measures media content and analyzes it.
What are some of the strengths and limitations of cultural studies research?
Strengths: the freedom it affords researchers to broadly interpret the impact of mass media. They can easily examine the ties between media messages and the broader social, economic, and political world.
Limits: focused exclusively on the meanings of media programs or texts, ignoring their effect on audiences
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