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43 terms

Urinary System Questions

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Name the 4 organs of the urinary system
Kidneys, uterus, urinary bladder, uretha
The kidneys are held in place by the...
adipose capsule
Backup of urine into the kidneys is called...
hyenephrosis
Abnormally low urine output of 100 ml to 400 ml/ day is called
oliguria
The pigment that gives urine its color
Urachrome
The triangular region of the bladder that is outlined by two openings of the urter and uretha is called...
trigone
Urinary bladder infection is called...
cysistis
Name the 4 functions of the kidney
make urine, convert vitamin D 2 arrive form, dispose waste, regulate blood&volume
Each kidney contains about _nephrons.
1 million
What is the function of a nephron?
Forms and filters urine
Provide the pathway of the arterial blood supply through the kidney
renal artery-segmental-lobular-interlobular-dicutate-interlobular-afferent artiel-glomulus-efferent-peritebral-interlobular-articulate-interior vena cava-renal vein
Is blood pressure in the glomerulus high or low?
High
Give 4 characteristics of normal urine
sterile, more dense than water, smells slightly, contains ammonia
What is the gravity of normal urine?
1.001-1.005
A noninvasvive treatment of kidney stones is
lithotripy
Why is the bladder able to expand?
It has transitional epithelium
How much urine is the bladder usually full with?
500ml
The voluntary sphincter associated with the uretha is the...
external uretha sphincter
Describe 4 symptoms of a typical urinary infection
dysuria, urgency, frequency, cloudy urine
What is the enlargement of the prostate gland called?
hypertrophy
How many liters of blood plasma does the kidney process in 24 hrs?
150-180 L
Name the 4 major roles of the kidney
Rid of nitrogenus waste, maintain water and electrolyte balance, manage pH of blood
How much of a healthy young adult weight is water weight?
1/2
The hormone that acts on the kidney to regulate sodium ion in the EFC is what?
aldosterone
What percent of sodium is reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
80%
What is a polycystic kidney condition?
degenerative, blisters or sacs with urine
What is the average output of urine per day for adults?
150 ml/day
What is the most common urinary tract infection?
E. Coli
Name the functions of the bladder, uretha, renal artery, and ureter
Stores Urine- Bladder
Transport urine to body exterior and is shorter in females- uretha
Transport arterial blood to kidney- renal artery
Transport urine to the urinary bladder- ureter
Describe these terms: cortex, medulla, calyx, renal capsule, renal column and renal pelvis
Renal capsule- smooth membrane clinging tightly to the kidney surface
Medulla- portion of kidney containing mostly collecting ducts
Cortex- portion of the kidney containing the bulk of the nephron structures and superficial region of kidney tissue
Renal pelvis- basinlike area of the kidney, continuous w/ ureter
Calyx- an extension of the pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid
Renal column- area of cortexlike tissue running between the medullary pyramids
Describe these 4 parts: glomulus, proximal convuluted tubule, collective duct, parietal capillaries, and glomerus
Glomulus- site of filtration
Proximal convuluted tubule- primary site of tubular reabsorption
Collective duct- structure that conveys the filtered urine to the renal pelvis
Parietal capillaries- blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells
Glomerus- inner membrane that forms part of the filtration membrane
Why is the glomerus such a high pressure capillary bed?
Blood that enters into a longer tube, and as it goes down, tube gets smaller, creating high pressure
How does high pressure condition aid its function of filtrate formation?
leaves proteins and sugars
What structural modification of certain tubule cells enhance their ability to reabsorb substances from the filtrate?
podocytes
Trace the anatomical pathway of a creatinine molecule from the glomular capsule to the urethra
glomerular capsule-proximial convuluted tuble-Loop of Henli-ducts- renal cortex- medullary pyramid- calyces- renal pelvis- ureter- bladder
List 3 nitrogenus wastes that are routinely found in urine
urea, uric acid, reatrine
List 3 substances that are absent from the filtrate and urine of healthy adults
blood, proteins, sugars, bile
List 2 substances that are routinely found in filtrate but not in urine product
amino acids and glucose
How does a urinary tract infection influence urine ph?
bacteria makes ph higher= basic urine
How does starvation influence urine ph?
urine becomes acidic because your body is breaking down amino acids
State these abnormal urine conditions: blood in urine, hemolytic anemia, eating too much candy in one sitting, pregnancy, starvation, urinary tract infection
blood in urine- hematuria
hemolytic anemia- hemoglobinuria
Too much candy in one sitting- glycosuria
Pregnancy- albuminuria
Starvation- ketonuria
Urinary Tract infection- pyuria
What conditions favor kidney stones?
alkine urine and higher concentration of solutes
Why does urine become alkaline and cloudy standing at room temp?
Bacteria comes and breaks down urea for ammonia