History 1301 Midterm Review
Terms in this set (75)
The Great Biological Exchange
Biological exchanges of plants and animals enabled a better and longer life for Europeans, who took food items back to the old world were suddenly able to grow food to support their large population. Indians, on the other hand, were destroyed by the exchange, becoming the victims of European diseases..
Leader of the conquistadores who driven by dreams of gold and glory sailed from Cuba to conquest the Aztecs in 1531.
Bartolome de las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, In southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor for them.
King Henry VIII
King of England, was married 6 times. He formed the Protestant church, known as the Church of England after being excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church. The creation of the Protestant church divided the country.
Daughter of Henry VIII, ruled England for 45 years and gave Sir Walter Raleigh permission for his expedition to the New World, eventually creating Roanoke. She also helped England defeat the Spanish Armada
The Spanish Armada
In 1588, a fleet was assembled by Phillip II of Spain to invade England, but they were defeated. The defeat helped bring the decline of the Spanish empire.
The first English settlement in North America, in 1587. Sir Walter Raleigh returned to England for supplies, and when he returned the enitre settlement was gone, and no one knows what exactly happened.
The first joint-stock company in the colonies; was founded in Jamestown and promised gold, conversion of Indians to Christianity and passage to the Indies.
The first permanent British colony established in New World, 1607 in Virginia.
(1676) Led by Nathaniel Bacon, Virginia settlers and farmers revolted against the hated governor, William Berkley. The rebellion was sparked by depressed tobacco prices, rising taxes, but most importantly freed servants seeking land.
A Boston midwife who often expressed her criticism of the minister. She had radical beliefs in antinomianism (salvation based on faith, divine grace), and claimed to be able to communicate with God, which led to her being banished from the Massachusetts Bay Company. (1630s)
A powerful alliance of Indian tribes that was the only to remain neutral with both France and Britain during the French and Indian War, trading with both sides. They were able to maintain power in the Great Lakes region.
Opposed the Church of England, and were often persecuted because they were considered dangerous; believed in "inner light" rather than scripture of bishop. Believed all men were equal in God's eyes. Also known as society of friends.
New England Colonies
Most settlers were attracted by religious ideals, opposed to economic. But, most were Puritans, opposing religious freedom. Mostly featured middle class families, people were farmers, merchants, fishermen. Included Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire
Settlers in the middle colonies produced many grain crops, such as wheat, corn, rye. Colonists in middle colonies were near many large harbors that connected to rivers, so this was good for trade in the area. Very diverse region, that was based on economic opportunity. (Pennsylvania, New York, Delaware, New Jersey)
Known for cash crops, mainly tobacco, traded and exported it back to Britian for large profits. Colonists also assimilated with the Indians. Chesapeake settlements set the foundation of the United States. This region had many slaves and indentured servants.(Maryland and Virginia)
Religious freedom, most colonists came from Caribbean Islands. Native americans were enslaved, and major crops were rice and indigo. Based on farming, and many former indentured servants had land in the Carolinas.
Arrived in Colonial America and were sold by the Virginia Company. Servants would work for a certain amount of years, based on the contract, usually 5-7 years. Once this time ended, if they had survived they were awarded land for themselves and were freed.
African Slave Trade
Beginning in 1780's, millions of Africans were captured and then shipped to the New World as slaves for sugar cane and cotton plantations.
Illegal trade between the colonies, West Indies and Africa designed to avoid the Navigation Laws; West Indies sent sugar to colonists, colonists sent rum to West Indies, then to Africa, and Africa sent slaves to West Indies, and they sent slaves to the colonists.
Late 1600's - Early 1700's
Was a push away from religion, emphasized human's capacity for reason or logic and individualism rather than tradition. Movement was adopted by many at Harvard. Was the first mass movement within the colonies.
Franklin was amongst those who signed the Decleration of Independence, he traceled to France to ask the French for help during the American Revolution and he was a key contributor to the U.S. Constitution.
Was a religious movement in response to the Enlightentment period. It appealed mainly to those of lower class, but was highlighted by preaching damning messages to essentially scare people into religion. Methodists and Baptists were created as a result of Great Awakening.
Graduated Harvard at 15 years old, and is often credited with starting the Great Awakening. He encourage the idea of salvation through good works, but was known for his heavily damning messages to congregation literally scaring them.
Proclamation of 1763
Royal directive issued after the French and Indian War prohibiting settlement,
surveys, and land grants west of the Appalachian Mountains; although it was
soon over-ridden by treaties, colonists continued to harbor resentment.
An economic system to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests.
Passed by the English Parliament to control colonial trade by restricting the use of foreign ships to trade between Britain and its colonies; enforcement of the acts led to growing resentment by
A period from the beginning of the 1600's to the mid 1700's, where England did not strictly enforce laws amongst the colonies, which gave the colonists greater independence in pursuing both economic and political interests.
French and Indian War
War between England and France, and was a continuation of the Seven Years War. The two fought for control of North America territory east of the Mississippi River, in which the British won.
A violent clash between British troops and a Boston mob occured on March 5,1770. 5 citizens were killed by the troops and this sparked many other events.
Stamp Act Congress
Was formed to organize rebellion againsts the taxes from Britain. The colonists became united and began to boycott.
Boston Tea Party
In 1773 colonists, some dressed as Mohawk Indians, dumped nearly 350 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor, costing Britain a lot of money. The colonists did this to protest the Tea Act.
Acts were passed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. The Port of Boston was closed, the power of assemblies in colonies was reduced, and troops were quartered amongst the colonies.
Written by Thomas Paine in 1776, opened the eyes of the colonists and gave them a reason to fight, and showed the goal of the war was independence.
Second Continental Congress
1775, created an organized army, Continental Army, with George Washington as the general, sent out the Olive Branch Petition, and was made up of 3 committees-- Model Treaty, Declaration of Independence, and Articles of Confederation.
Olive Branch Petition
The colonists sent a letter to King George III proposing to cease war, and make peace but George denied the request.
Served as the general of Continental Army during the Revolution, was a leader of the Constitutional Convention, and was the 1st president of the United States. He set the precedent that a president should only serve 2 terms.
The chief of the Mohawk Indians who converted to the Church of England, despite the fact he led the Iroquois against the Americans in the Revolutionary War.
General Greene was appointed by Congress to command the American army fighting in the South during the Revolutionary War. Using his patience and
his skills of managing men, saving supplies, and avoiding needless risks, he waged a successful
war of attrition against the British.
Helped Continental Army and George Washington in Battle of Saratoga, which was the turning point of the war. But because Washington gave Arnold no credit he rejoined Britain.
Wife of 2nd president, John Adams, attempted to get rights for women from her husband during the creation of the Declaration of Independence.
Battle of Saratoga
October 1777, American forces, led by Benedict Arnold, forced Britain general to surrender his entire command. This was a major turning point in the war, as colonists won a majority of the following battles.
Head of the Confederation and was the superintendent of finances following the Revolutionary War, and he envisioned a national finance plan of taxation and debt management, but this wasn't implemented.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Present-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin. These territories were divided into 640 acre "squares" of area and were sold to raise money since the government wasn't able to tax.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Established a system for setting up governments in the Western territories. Once these territories reached a certain population, then they were eligible to apply for statehood.
Farmer, Daniel Shay, led rebellion because farmers were having their farms foreclosed because they weren't being given cash, even though the farmers had the crops to pay for their farms. (1786-1787)
In 1787, representatives met, mostly Federalists, initally to discuss revisions to the Articles of Confederation, but they instead decided to start over. Representatives from each states were sent, and they decided over the 3 plans.
Connecticut Plan/Great Compromise
Compromise of the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan. There would be a 2 body Congress, the Senate where each state had 2 votes. And the House of Representatives, were representation was based on population.
Separation of Powers
The 3 branches of government, legislative, executive, and judicial, were created so that no single group could control all of the government.
Supported a strong central government, and advocated the ratification of the U.S. Constitution, led by Alexander Hamilton
Opposed a strong central government, felt power should be spread amongst states, and were skeptical about the Consitution. Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
Leader of the Federalist Party, wrote much of the Federalists Papers, and was the first Secretary of the Treasury. Came up with the 5 Point Plan, and the idea of a national bank.
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton, was supported by liberals, opposed by conservatives. The bank would be opened to decrease the debt the country was in.
A French ambassador to the United States who engaged American privateers to attack British ships and conspired with frontiersmen
and land speculators to organize an attack on Spanish Florida and Louisiana.
His actions and the French radicals excessive actions against their enemies in the new
French Republic caused the French Revolution to lose support among Americans.
A treaty between the United States and Britain requiring Britain to withdraw troops from the Northwest Territory in return for many more concession from America. (1794)
Whenever the 5 Point Plan was enacted, there was a tax placed on whiskey. This upset farmers in Western Pennsylvania and they took to violence but Washington took troops and they quickly stopped the revolt. (1791-1794)
Found and expanded a trail into Kentucky, which pioneers used to reach and settle the area.
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington stressed the importance of maintaining commercial but not political ties with other nations and also discouraged entering permanent alliances.
He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. During the Revolutionary War, he
worked as a diplomat in France and negotiated the peace treaty with Britain. After the Revolutionary War, he served as the vice president and the second president of the United States. As president, he passed the
Alien and Sedition Acts.
French foreign minister Tallyrand's three anonymous agents demanded payments to
stop French plundering of American ships in 1797; refusal to pay the bribe led to two years of
sea war with France.
Alien and Sedition Acts
(1798) Four acts passed to increase the number of years before being eligible for citizenship. And it was a crime to publically critcize the government.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
In 1798, documents written by James Madison (Virginia) and Thomas Jefferson (Kentucky) supported the idea of having more self government and more rights for states. They opposed the Alien and Sedition Acts which extended the powers of the federal national.
He was a plantation owner, author, the drafter of the Declaration of Independence, ambassador to France, leader of the Democratic-Republican party, secretary of
state, and the third president of the United States. As president, he purchased the Louisiana territory from France, withheld appointments made by President Adams leading to Marybury v. Madison, outlawed foreign slave trade, and was committed to a
"wise and frugal" government.
Revolution of 1800
Refers to the Election of 1800 when Thomas Jefferson won. Considered revolutionary because it was the first shift in political parties. Since the first presidents were Federalists and Jefferson was a Democratic-republican.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1801). First time a federal law was ruled unconstitutional.
Was chief justice of supreme court from 1801-1835, he shaped the American legal tradition, and strengthened the federal government, and established many precedents, established power over states.
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations, 1801-1805.
President Thomas Jefferson's 1803 purchase from France of the important port of New Orleans and 828,000 square miles west of the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains; it more than doubled the territory of the United States at a cost of only $15 million.
Corps of Discovery
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led this group of men on an expedition of the newly purchased Louisiana territory, which took them from Missouri to Oregon.
As they traveled, they kept detailed journals and drew maps of the previously unexplored territory. Their reports attracted traders and trappers to the region and gave the United States a claim to the Oregon country by right of discovery and exploration.
Even though he was Thomas Jefferson's vice president, he lost favor with Jefferson's supporters who were Republicans. He sought to work with the Federalists
and run as their candidate for the governor of New York. Alexander Hamilton opposed Burr's candidacy and his stinging remarks on the subject led to Burr challenging him to duel in which Hamilton was killed.
In 1805, Aaron Burr proposed to separate the western states from the Union and form a new republic under English protection, but England refused to listen to his plan. Wilkinson informed Jefferson of Burr's plans for treason and had Burr arrested.
He participated in the Constitutional Convention during
which he proposed the Virginia Plan. He believed in a strong federal government and
was a leader of the Federalists and a contributor to The Federalist. However, he also presented to Congress the Bill of Rights and drafted the Virginia Resolutions. As the secretary
of state, he withheld a commission for William Marbury, which led to the landmark Marbury v. Madison decision. During his presidency, he declared war on Britain in response to violations of American shipping rights, which started the War of 1812.
Britain's Order in Council
Issued by England, closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping (1807)
The British navy used press-gangs to kidnap men in British and colonial ports who were then forced to serve in the British navy. Many kidnapped men were sailors from other European countries and America.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Americans v. Shawnee Indians. led by governor William Henry Harrison, the Americans defeated the Shawnee's and Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory.(1811) This weakened Indian resistance in Northwest Territory.