Victimology Exam 1

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-Federal legislation to fund state victim compensation programs and local victim assistance programs
-Recommendations to criminal justice professionals and other professionals about how to better treat crime victims
-Creation of a task force on violence within families
-An amendment to the U.S. Constitution to provide crime victims' rights (yet to be passed)
What is the principle of homogamy?the more frequently a person comes into contact with persons in demographic groups with likely offenders, the more likely it is that the person will be victimizedWhat are "hot spots"?areas that are prone to criminal activity×What is the victim-offender overlap?the notion that victims are offenders and vice versaWhat is the dynamic casual perspective?the linkage between victimization and offending occurs due to the influence and impact of those experiences directly on one anotherWhat is the population heterogeneity perspective?it states that victimization does not cause offending or vice versa, but rather that they are both related to personality characteristic or movement that does not change over timeWhat is IPV?intimate partner violenceList and briefly describe the three major types of IPV?-Situational couple violence -Intimate terrorism -Violent resistanceWhat are prostitution courts?a specific set of courts used as a method to reduce recidivism associated with sex work and to cut down the number of sexually exploited individuals in the criminal justice systemWhat is PTSD?post traumatic stress disorderList and describe the three types of trauma.-Single trauma: traumatic event linked to a single point in time -Repeated trauma: a series of traumatic events happening to the same person over time -Sustained/chronic trauma: some repeated traumas are sustained or chronic, like victims of child abuseWhat is the neurobiology of trauma?individuals react to trauma both psychologically and physiologicallyList and describe the two types of self-blame.-Characterological self-blame: when a person ascribes blame to a non-modifiable source (such as character) -Behavioral self blame: when a personal ascribes blame to a modifiable source (such as behavior)List the five different types of the cost of victimization.-cost of stolen or damaged property -costs of receiving medical treatment -mental anguish of victims (or even PTSD) -money spent by the criminal justice system to prevent and respond to crime -money spent to assist crime victimsWhat is vicarious victimization?the secondhand effect that victimization has on othersWhat is "lifestyle" and what effect does it have on the likelihood of being victimized? Give one specific example of how it can affect the likelihood of being victimized.the type of life a person lives; it can increase/decreases the likelihood of certain crimes. a person is not likely to be robbed in a club if they do not attend clubsWhat is the definition of "situational awareness"?the consciousness of crime that allows us to have healthy fearWhat is target hardening? Give two examples.making it more difficult for an offender to attack a certain target; installing an alarm system or locking doorsAccording to interviews with burglars. what are two ways to prevent your home from being burglarized?-Turn on the lights -Lock the doors/windowsWhat is recurring victimization?when a person or place is victimized more than once by any type of victimizationWhat is the risk heterogeneity or the "flag" explanation of recurring victimization?the qualities or characteristics that initially put a victim at risk will continue to keep a person at riskWhat is the state dependence or the "boost" explanation of recurring victimization?it is not qualities nor character that are important for recurring victimization, but rather what happens during and afterWhat is the. compounding vulnerability argument?those with the highest risk of underlying propensity for victimization will be at risk for future victimization because of state-dependence processesWhat is the victimization salience perspective?state-dependence processes will be most salient among those with the lowest underlying risksWhat is the. negative state dependence perspective?low-risk persons experience negative state dependenceWhat is one major advantage of the National Incident Based Reporting Sustem (NIBRS)?it represents an advancement of the UCR by being an advanced data collection effort that includes detailed information about crimesWhat is "the hierarchy rule" and why is this a disadvantage of the UCR?if more than one Part 1 offense occurs in the same incident report, only the most serious offense will be reported; this causes the UCR to underestimate the extent of crime