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Psychological Psychology: Exam 1 Review
Kennesaw State University
Terms in this set (103)
Branching fibers off the cell body
What are lined with synaptic receptors?
____________ on dendrites receive info from other ____________.
What are dendrites responsible for?
Bringing information into the neuron
What does the soma contain?
the nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes
Thin fibers that extends fro cell body of a neuron.
What are axons responsible for?
transmitting nerve impulses toward other neurons, organs, or muscles
______________ at the end points of an axon release chemicals to communicate with other neurons
refers to the state of the neuron when it is not sending a nerve impulse
Resting potential of a neuron
What does the membrane maintain what the neuron is at rest?
What is electrical gradient also known as?
Polarization (known as)
A difference in the electrical charge inside and outside of the cell
True or False: The inside of the membrane is slightly negative with respects to the outside (approximately -70 millivolts)
Its is more negative _________ the neuron than outside partially because of negatively charged proteins __________ the neuron.
What forces act on the neuron to help maintain its resting state?
Gradient (concentration and electrical) and Sodium-potassium pump
an unequal distribution of some attribute or property.
What are the two types of gradients?
Concentration and Electrical gradient
an unequal distribution of quantity of a chemical substance across a cell membrane
In concentration gradient a substance wants to move from an area of _______ concentration to an area of ________ concentration.
An unequal distribution of electrical charges across a cell membrane.
Opposites attract applies to what
Electrical Gradient (distribution)
Continually pumps sodium ions out of neurons and potassium ions in
How many Na+ are pumped out?
How many K+ are pumped in?
What is the sodium-potassium pump purpose?
To help maintain the electrical gradient (diff. in charge inside relative to the outside of the membrane)
The sodium-potassium pump uses
Active Transport (requires ATP)
the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
What ions are involved in maintaining the resting state
proteins (A-), potassium (K+), chloride (CI-), and sodium (Na+)
Found only inside neuron; too big to cross membrane
Do forces have an effect on proteins (A-)?
Found predominately inside the neuron
why does K+ diffuse out of a neuron?
Due to concentration gradient
Why are K+ predominately inside the neuron?
more negatively charged inside neuron; attracts the positive charged potassium (electrical gradient)
Found predominately outside the neuron
Chloride (CI-) and Sodium (Na+)
Why are CI- predominately outside the neuron?
CI- negatively charged enough negative charge inside neuron
Why do Na+ want to go inside the neuron?
more negatively charged inside; Na has a positive charge
What can change the resting state?
Hyperpolarization and depolarization
True or False: the resting potential does not remain stable until the neuron is stimulated?
What are the two changes that can occur when a neuron is stimulated?
Hyperpolarization and depolarization (stim)
increasing the polarization (the difference) between the electrical
charge of the inside compared to the outside of the neuron;
the neuron becomes more negatively charged inside than normal (remember the neuron is negatively charged inside relative to the outside when in its resting state)
decreasing the polarization toward zero; the neuron becomes less negatively charged than normal
If a neuron becomes depolarized enough it reaches _________ then an __________ will occur.
threshold; action potential
To generate an action potential what must be reached first?
True or False: The threshold varies from one neuron to another, but is consistent for each neuron
What is usually the millivolts for to reach threshold?
a message (an electrical current) that is sent down the axon of a neuron; is initiated by a shift in a neuron's electrical balance (when the threshold is reached)
What are the steps of action potential?
1) Threshold reached
2) Na+ and K+ channels open
3) Na+ rushes into neuron
4) Neuron becomes positive inside
5) When positive peak (~30 mV) is reached, Na+ channels close
6) K+ exits neuron
7) Neuron becomes hyperpolarized (~-100 mV)
8) Resting potential reestablished (-70 mV)
9) The sodium-potassium pump helps restore the original distribution of ions
Movement of the action potential down the axon
insulated material composed of fats and proteins that speeds up movement of the action potential down the axon
Whats the unmyelinated sections the interrupt the myelin sheath of axons?
Nodes of Ranvier
What is the jumping of the action potential from node to node called?
They're Na+ ion channels all the way down the axon; As the action potential moves down the axon, it depolarizes the next
section of the axon which then triggers the next Na+ ion channel one-after-another like a row of dominos falling
Action potential in unmyelinated neuron
the Na+ ion channels are only located at the nodes of Ranvier. Since only these Na+ channels have open, the action potential can move much more quickly
Action potential in a myelinated neuron
Neuron the delivers the synaptic transmission
Neuron that receives the message
Space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons
Synaptic gap (cleft)
The neuron synthesizes ___________ and stores than in ___________.
Chemicals that travel across the synapse and allow communication between neurons.
Sacs located in the presynaptic terminal where neurotransmitters are stored for release
How information is send form presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron?
1) when action potential reaches end of axon, Ca++ channels open
2) Ca++ enters neuron
3) Triggers release of neurotransimitters through process called exocytosis
4) diffuse diffuse across synaptic cleft
5) Nts attach to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron
8) Nts alter the activity of postsynaptic neuron
9) causes the ion channels to open
10) Lead to EPSPs or IPSPs depending on which ions channels open
11) NTs detach from receptors
12) processes are cleared from synaptic cleft through 2 main processses
Bursts of release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic terminal into the synaptic cleft
graded depolarization in the postsynaptic neuron; decays over time and space; increases the likelihood that an action potential will be generated; occurs when Na+ channels open on the postsynaptic neuron
Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
graded hyperpolarization in the postsynaptic membrane; decays over time and space; decreases the likelihood that an action potential will be generated; occurs when K+ or CI- channels open in the postsynaptic neuron
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
What are the two main processes that NTs are cleared from the synaptic cleft?
Reuptake and Diffuse away from extracellular fluid
Postsynaptic potentials are ____________.
responses whose magnitude is related to the magnitude of the stimuli.
Grade responses (definition)
True or False: action potential are graded responses
False (they are all-or-none)
Action potential occur to ___________ same magnitude of the stimuli.
True or False: The magnitude of the stimulus is related to the firing rate
Postsynaptic neurons usually receive messages from _________ presynaptic neurons and ________ message from each presynaptic neuron, so the postsynaptic neuron ______ up these messages.
Multiple; More than One; Sums
the process of combining a number of individual excitatory and inhibitory signals into one overall signal/
What are the two types of summation?
Temporal and Spatial
The integration of neural input from one presynaptic neuron over a brief period of time; summation over time
The integration of neural input from different presynaptic neurons at one particular moment in time; summation over space
the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience
Question about the relationship between mental experience and brain activity
Belief that mind and body are different kinds of substance that exist independently
belief that the universe consist of only one kind of substance
What are the four types of biological explanation?
Physiological, Ontogenetic, Evolutionary and Functional
Describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did
Understanding in terms of the evolutionary history of a structure or behavior
Understanding in terms of how a structure or behavior develops
Understanding in terms of the activity of the brain and other organs
What are some career opportunities for psychologists and physicians?
Neuropsychologists, Neuroscientists and behavioral neuroscientist
What are four reasons why animals are often used in psychological and medical reseach?
1) Underlying mechanisms of behavior are similar across species and sometimes easier to study in a nonhuman species
2) We are interested in animals for their own sake.
3) What we learn about animals sheds light on human evolution.
4) Legal or ethical restrictions prevent certain kinds of research on humans.
What are the two kinds of cells the nervous system consist of?
Neurons and Gila
Who are the two main founders of neuroscience?
Charles Sherrington and Santiago Ramon y Cajal
Who was the first person to demonstrate that neurons were separate cells? What scientists
received the Nobel Prize for this discovery?
Cajal; Cajal and Golgi
neuron that receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses to a muscle
Neuron that is highly sensitive to a specific type of stimulation
neuron whose axons and dendrites are all confined within a given structure
Star-shaped gila that synchronize the activity of the axon
cells that remove waste material and other microorganisms from the nervous system
Glia cells that build myelin sheaths in the brain and spinal cord
gila cells in the periphery of the body build the myelin sheaths that surround and insulate certain vertebrate axons.
What are the four major structures that compose a neuron?
Dendrites, soma (cell body), axon, and presynaptic terminal
Cells that guide the migration of neurons and the growth of axons and dendrites during embryological development
Mechanism that excludes most chemicals from the brain
What vitamin is necessary in order for the body to use glucose?
Which chemicals cross the blood-brain barrier by active transport?
Glucose, amino acids, purines, choline, certain vitamins and iron.
What percentage of oxygen and glucose consumed by the body is used by the brain?
20% of oxygen and 25% of glucose
Prolonged thiamine deficiency, common in chronic alcoholism, leads to death of neurons and a condition called, marked by severe memory impairments.
Does a touch on the shoulder feel stronger than a touch on the foot? Why or why not
Touch on shoulder because its closer to the brain?
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