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BMIS 3080 Test 1
Terms in this set (40)
Areas of Culture
Food, clothing, beauty, architecture, rites of passage, worship, view of animals, concepts of God, views on life after death
A spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people (family, clan, lineage, tribe)
Limited good; why do we care?
The idea that there was only a certain amount of wealth, goodness, and value in the world. Therefore, if one person gained, it was assumed that someone else had lost; God's ways are higher than all of our ways (Isaiah 55)
Why would it have been a sin to give into these temptations?
He had already made a commitment to his fasting; Jesus never used his power to help himself, only serve others
What did Jesus do to prepare himself for ministry?
- he fasted and was tempted
- learned the Scripture and grew in wisdom
- worked as a carpenter (financial responsibilities)
- spent 30 yrs. for 3 yrs. of mission work
How did Jesus identify with culture?
- learned obedience through suffering
- tempted, yet without sin
- became a man, did not grasp equality with God
How did Jesus' teaching methods reflect His identification with Jewish culture?
He used the methods the rabbis used, such as stories and parables, and respected how the parables always ended with a surprise
What were His teaching methods?
- activities/tests (sending his disciples on limited commission/ having his disciples feed the 5,000)
- example (washing their feet)
Were they similar or different to the methods of the time?
What is missionary anthropology?
The study of similarities and diversities of human cultures designed to equip evangelists to communicate cross-culturally
How did missionaries become the first anthropologists and why did they abandon the science for a time?
Anthropology is the study of people, and Christians sought to bring all people to Christ; abandoned because all behavior (even religion) was sought to be the result of culture and culture was to be preserved
What are the two gulfs the missionary must bridge?
- between biblical culture and the 21st century culture (relating/understanding)
- between personal culture and foreign culture (maintaining truth)
Hiebert's definition of culture
the more or less integrated systems of ideas, feelings, and values and their associated patterns of behavior and products shared by a group of people who organize and regulate what they think, feel, and do
- German word meaning growth
- was used to designate the "total nonbiological transmitted heritage of man"
What is meant by "integration" in culture
you can't affect one part of culture without another part being affected
Functions of Culture
- Provides organization to our lives (guiding rules and patterns, unconscious/influential/pervasive rules)
- Shapes thinking and acting (our "road map"/ model of reality; ethnocentrism)
How do people judge whether someone is trustworthy or not?
By whether or not the person respects their culture
What is "cultural validity"?
Culture makes sense to those who practice it
What is the function of cultural validity?
encourages us to practice cultural relativism, or to evaluate a culture first in terms of its own values, goals, and focuses before comparing it to our own culture
How can ethnocentrism be positive and negative?
Positive: it is the glue for culture, creates patriotism
Negative: it can cause us to judge other cultures unfairly
What is our ethnocentric tendency?
To evaluate other cultures on areas of life in which our culture has specialized
Dimensions of Culture
cognitive, affective, evaluative
Cognitive dimension of culture
- ideas, knowledge, logic
- Ex: how we think about time (linear) vs. Hindu time (cyclical); gender roles
Affective dimension of culture
- Ex: taste, beauty, comfort
Evaluative dimension of culture
- right vs. wrong
- Ex. modesty
Manifestations of Culture
- Behavior is learned from birth, largely unconscious, rewarded/extinguished by society
- Material objects (music, literature, clothing, etc.)
Characteristics of Culture
- Shared (traits symbols, language)
- Adaptive (changes, fads, innovation)
- Integrated: our behavior is linked to deep-seeded beliefs and values (value of people determined by status/wealth/education/beauty)
Which two branches of anthropology are most helpful to the missionaries?
- practical/applied anthropology
- linguistic anthropology
How did Christian missionaries contribute to the development of cultural anthropology?
Reports from 19th century missionaries about the unfamiliar people and customs they encountered in their travels
Examples of symbols in culture interpreted by a group of people
- nodding your head
- waving your hand to say hi
What is the problem with Christians trying to reject culture and simply live as Christians apart from any culture?
- "God's truth in Scripture and in Jesus is only and always revealed to us through specific cultural forms"
- "God gave us different cultures so that we could understand God more fully"
- Rejecting culture is basically a culture itself
- People who reject culture are in denial
The disorientation we experience when all the cultural maps/guidelines we learn as children no longer work
Causes of culture shock
1. New language
2. Routine changes
3. Relationship changes
4. Loss of understanding
5. Emotional and value disorientation
Symptoms of culture shock
1. rising stress
2. physical illness
Stages of culture shock
1. tourist/honeymoon stage
2. disenchantment (why am I here?)
4. adjustment (control is returning)
5. reverse culture shock
What does culture shock depend on?
1. extent of differences between cultures
2. personality/adaptability of the missionary
3. coping mechanisms used to identify shock
How can one overcome culture shock?
1. defeat individualism with God's help
2. surrender your competitiveness
3. know before you go
4. set realistic goals
5. be humble
6. care for your family (!)
7. share your burdens with others
8. recreate and discover areas of the new culture that you love
T/F: Ethnocentrism has a positive function.
True; "the glue of culture"
- the process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations
- born into certain socio-cultural contexts
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding/new culture (honestly idk just guessed)
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