41 terms

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Natural Selection (survival of the fittest) How does Evolution work?
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Variation
individuals in a population vary from one another
Natural Selection
A natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment.
model
a representation of an object or event
organism
a living thing
simulation
an imitation, a representation, or a reproduction of a situation or an experience
trait
characteristic (ie: physical structure/ form) that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
Gene
blue print or instructions to build a body structure and it is passed from parents to offspring (children)
camouflage
* the act of concealing the identity of something by modifying its appearance
* blending into the environment
species
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
beneficial
producing or promoting a favorable result; helpful
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
predator
An animal that hunts other animals for food
prey
Animal hunted or caught for food
population
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
reproduction
the production of offspring
Variation
individuals in a population vary (differ) from each other
form
Shape or visual appearance of an object or organism
function
the use or purpose of something
advantageous
mutation that makes it easier to survive long enough to reproduce
(eg: camouflage to hide from predators)
disadvantageous
mutation that makes it harder to survive (ie: dies before it can reproduce)
selective forces
anything in the environment that makes a mutation beneficial or harmful and results in certain alleles becoming more common in the population
competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
extinct/extinction
the complete loss of a species from an area
Mutation
errors in DNA code or its translation
can be positive, negative or neutral
Artificial Selection
selective breeding of plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits in offspring
environment
determines which variation/ mutation is positive (+)
Inherit/Inheritance
Parents pass on their traits to their offspring genetically
example: Fish & Chips- winners (survives the predator) became parents and passed the mutation to the offspring.
Bunny Survival Game- brown bunny pass down traits to offspring which is brown in a desert environment.
Time
successful variation accumulate over many generation
Adaptation
a structure that becomes common in a population due to natural selection, because it provides improved function.
evolve
the change in the population over time where one trait (adaptation) becomes more common
example:
Fish n' Chips- red color becomes more advantageous in the red lake environment
Survival of the Fittest
the continued existence of organisms that are best adapted to their environment
environmental pressure
the selective forces in the environment that make it difficult for organisms to survive
ex) predators, competition for resources/mates
offspring
a new organism that is the product of reproduction
protein
* The middle step in the process of DNA coding for a trait
* Includes the parts and the assembly of the parts to make a trait
allele
one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as eye color
DNA
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
chromosome
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
generation
one step in the line of descent of a family
Asexual reproduction
The production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent
Punnett square
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
clone
an exact duplicate
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