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Unit 5 AP Government Political Participation Terms
Terms in this set (81)
narrowcasting/ ideologically driven programming
programming on cable TV that is focused on a particular interest and aimed at a particular audience (HGTV, ESPN, etc)
When it comes to politics, cable news programs report news from their ideological perspective
FOX= conservative, MSNBC= liberal
process by which people consciously choose to get news from information sources that have viewpoints similar to their own
organization where local government is controlled by party leaders- use patronage to win votes and govern
displacement of the majority party by the minority one
gradual disengagement of people from the political parties, leading to more independent voters- helps lead to split ticket voting and divided government
winner take all system
electoral system in which seats are awarded by the candidate who wins the most votes. This contributes to the two party system and lack of third parties
public interest group
seek to influence policy for the good of the general public and not just a specific group or issue. Think: Environmental groups- clean air benefits everyone!
free rider problem
people do not join because they can benefit from the group's activities without joining
attempting to influence a policy maker either directly or indirectly (meeting with them to provide information and convince them to vote in group's favor)
interest groups attempting to influence elections in order to get favorable candidates into office. donate to campaigns/ endorse candidates/ create ads
also referred to as agenda setting function
The role played by the media in influencing what subjects become national political issues and for how long
a practice which journalist and reporters use in regards to government coverage and campaign coverage with emphasis on who is gaining or losing, not on what is being done about issues.
investigative journalism/ watchdog role
in-depth reporting to unearth scandals; making media enemies of politicians
switched to this after Vietnam/Watergate
belief that the media is biased in favor of one point of view- most often a liberal bias. There is limited evidence to support this
Proven bias is toward what gets the most viewers- media outlets want to make money and will show or emphasize stories that bring in viewers
The role the press plays by keeping track of and helping make political reputations, note who is being mentioned as a presidential candidate, and help decide who is winning and losing in Washington politics.
short clips- about 10 secs shown on the news- usually of a politican's speech
national party chairperson
A paid, full-time manager of a party's day-to-day work who is elected by the national committee.
proportional voting system
an electoral system used throughout most of europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election
tends to lead to multi-party systems
contenders other than two major parties, not unusual, but rarely win elections due to winner take all, plurality system, lack of funding/media attention, and bc major parties usually adopt policies of third parties that gain popularity
amicus curiae brief
Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties. These briefs attempt to influence a court's decision.
influencing government decision makers though indirect pressure (usually in the form of letters, emails, phone calls) from large numbers of constituents. This is also called indirect lobbying.
Employment cycle in which individuals who work for government agencies regulating interests eventually end up working for interest groups or business with the same policy concern.
right to vote
Rational Choice Voting Theory
Voters make choices of who to vote for based on what is in their best interest- usually based on what is best economically for them
retrospective voting theory
Voters makes choices of who to vote for based on the past records of the candidates. Consider their experience and past voting records
prospective voting theory
Voters make choices of who to vote for based off what candidates can do for them once they are elected. Consider what promises are being made by the candidate while campaigning
Party-line Voting Theory
Voters make choices of who to vote strictly by what party they are. This is straight ticket voting.
Ex: If I am Republican, I will vote for all Republicans.
Number of registered voters who actually vote
Typically low in the US- especially for local and midterm elections
More likely to show up to vote: More educated, white, older people
Structural barriers to voting
The way the system is set up that might prevent people from voting
Ex: weekday elections, registration requirements before election, photo ID laws
Used by southern states to prevent African Americans from voting but allow poor whites to vote
If grandfather could vote- you can vote (date used to determine those qualified was before end of slavery)
Used in southern states to prevent African Americans from voting. Had to pass it to register to vote- African Americans were typically less educated and tests were made harder
The use of these were banned by Voting Rights Act
tax required to be allowed to vote
Used by southern states to prevent African Americans from voting who usually need not have the money to pay the tax due to job discrimination and past as slaves
Banned by the 24th amendment
Voter registration laws
Set by the states so they vary. Usually require you to register 30 days or so before an election and show ID.
Motor Voter Law attempted to make it easier by requiring DMV to have voter registration forms
Congressional election 2 years into a President's term
Usually turnout is low and the president's party typically loses seats
Every 4 years- turnout is higher than midterms due to more media coverage and belief of people that it is more important
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
The smallest unit of election administration; a voting district
A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy
An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy through electioneering, lobbying, litigation
The channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda. In the United States, linkage institutions include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
a party's efforts to inform potential voters about issues and candidates and to persuade them to vote
Leading up to the election date parties will focus on this more and try to get their members to show up and vote
Get Out the Vote (GOTV)
The period before any votes are cast when candidates compete to win early support from the elite of the party and to create a positive first impression of their leadership skills.
First state to hold a caucus or primary, therefore giving Iowa much attention during the campaign season.
In a presidential race, highly competitive states in which both major party candidates stand a good chance of winning the state's electoral votes.
Candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half.
The candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election.
The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention.
A political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years. The platform is drafted prior to the party convention by a committee whose members are chosen in rough proportion to each candidate's strength. It is the best formal statement of a party's beliefs.
National party leaders who automatically get a delegate slot at the Democratic national party convention.
The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president.
parties often ask viable candidates to run and target seats they see as winnable
one of the roles of party leaders- find people to run
An electoral "earthquake" where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party. Critical election periods are sometimes marked by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era.
minor party candidates can pull decisive votes away from one of the major parties' candidates, especially if the minor party candidate is from a splinter party
Elector in Electoral College who does not vote for the candidate they promised to vote for. These have never determined outcome of presidential election but is a major problem with electoral college system
electoral district from which one person is chosen by the voters for each elected office
interest groups that focus on one narrow issue
The electoral advantage a candidate enjoys by virtue of already being in elected before and holding the office
More access to media, name recognition, already have staff, franking priv.
professional organization interest groups
Formed to represent people in specific professions like American Medical Assoc., American Bar Assoc., etc
Primary election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote.
A primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote
meetings where political party members meet, discuss, and chose candidates to run
More dedicated members of party- more hard liners attend
a gathering of delegates who nominate a party's presidential candidate and write party platform
candidates used to be chosen by party leaders at conventions but it's less important now with the use of the primary system
National Popular Vote
The people cast ballot for who they want to see as President
funds collected by a candidate to spend on a political campaign
funds obtained by political parties that are spent on party activities, such as get-out-the-vote drives, but not on behalf of a specific candidate
Banned by BCRA
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.
political money where the donors of the money do not have to be disclosed
Ads that advocate policy positions rather than explicitly supporting or opposing particular candidates
Spending by political action committees, corporations, or labor unions that is done to help a party or candidate but is done independently of them (don't coordinate with campaign)
requires candidates in the United States for federal political office, as well as interest groups and political parties supporting or opposing a candidate, to include in political advertisements on television and radio "a statement by the candidate that identifies the candidate and states that the candidate has approved the communication.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations
a type of independent political action committee which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates.
must use independent expenditures
Independent political groups that are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly seek the election of particular candidates. Section 527 of the tax code specifies that contributions to such groups must be reported to the IRS.
Tax-exempt organizations that can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money to promote "social welfare." They may advocate for or against candidates, but political activities cannot become their primary purpose. They can keep their donors and names of members secret.
mandate theory of elections
The idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platforms and politics.
They voted for him/her so therefore, they must like and support their policy agenda too.
Politicians like the theory better than political scientists do.
trustworthy, unbiased, objective news
Becoming a source of controversy due to fake news- incorrect, made up stories in the news (not just news you disagree with!)
the tendency of the national media to be suspicious of officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them
politics that focuses directly on the candidates, their particular issues, and character, rather than on party affiliation
a paid professional hired to devise a campaign strategy and manage a campaign
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