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Unit 2 AP Government Interaction Among Branches of Government Terms
Terms in this set (110)
activities of members of Congress that help constituents- particularly cutting through red tape to get people what they think they have a right to get
federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, etc. Congress will try to get them to benefit their district/state
most powerful committee in House- sets rules for debate- schedule, length, open/closed rule, etc
strategy unique to Senate- opponents of legislation use unlimited debate to prevent a vote from taking place. Need 60 members to end it (cloture)
subject matter committees in Congress, permanent to handle bill in a certain policy area
formed when the House and Senate pass different versions of legislation. This committee works to iron out the differences and come up with 1 version
House Ways and Means
Committee in House dealing with tax legislation. All revenue bills start here in Congress= House is closer to the people
Congressional committee, interest group, executive agency. They develop dependent, mutually exclusive relationships to make and implement policy
two houses- differences bw House & Senate. House= more formal/more rules, more done in committee
a group of congressional members sharing some interest or characteristic. Often composed of members from both house and senate and from both parties.
an order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate and forbids a particular bill from being amended on the floor
rule used by the Senate, providing to end or limit filibuster
Assigned by party leaders. In Senate tend to use seniority- longest serving party member becomes chair.
elected officials who seek to vote the way their constituents want them to, even if it goes against what they want/how they personally feel
A device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had a bill for thirty days, may petition to have it brought to the floor. If a majority of members agree, the bill is discharged from the committee and sent to floor for debate
Special spending projects that are set aside on behalf of individual members of Congress for their constituents.
free mail given to Congress members- helps with incumbent advantage bc they can send newsletters to postcards to constituents detailing their accomplishments
Congress' monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, preformed mainly through hearings
legislator supports a proposal favored by another in return for support for his or her proposal
Senate majority leader
most powerful member of the Senate- schedules votes, influences committee assignments, sets policy agenda for his party in Senate
procedural rule in the House of Representatives that permits floor amendments during floor debate
Congress can override a Pres. veto by 2/3 vote in both houses to make something a law. Diffcult to do- uncommon
the split between the political parties in Congress. Drastic polarization has caused gridlock. Becoming more of a problem
Amendments to bills, often in the form of appropriations, that sometimes have nothing to do with the intent of the bill itself
Congressional committees appointed for a specific purpose, such as the Watergate investigation.
speaker of the house
most powerful member in the House of Reps- chosen by the majority party. Schedules and runs debates, influences committee assignments, sets policy agenda for majority party in House
Legislators should consider the will of the people but act in ways that they believe are best for the long-term interest of the nation
a legislator appointed by the party to enforce discipline and work to obtain votes for/against a bill based on what the party wants
Money that is budgeted on a yearly basis; for example, Congress may set yearly limits on what agencies can spend
a person whom a member of Congress has been elected to represent
Legislators sometimes as a trustee or a delegate depending on issue
The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time.
Power of the Purse
The constitutional power of Congress to raise and spend money. Congress can use this as a negative or checking power over the other branches by freezing or cutting their funding.
money that Congress has allocated to be spent
one party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress
President of the Senate
Vice President presides over the Senate- only votes in cases of tie
President Pro Tempore
Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president- doesn't have any real power
Key Senate committee that is responsible for recommending presidential judicial appointments to the full Senate for approval.
A committee of the United States House of Representatives. It is in charge of setting the specific expenditures of money by the government
Committee of the Whole
A device used in the House of Representatives to expedite the passage of legislation. The quorum is reduced from 218 members to 100, and the Speaker appoints a member of the majority party as chair. Time allotted for debating the bill in question is split equally between its proponents and opponents. The committee cannot itself pass legislation but may debate and propose amendments.
A Senate requirement, applied to most of that body's business, that all senators agree before an action can proceed.
advice and consent
Terms in the Constitution describing the U.S. Senate's power to review and approve treaties and presidential appointments.
regulations originating with executive branch- they have the force of law and do not need to go through Congress. It is one way the President can control the bureaucracy
the ability of the president to withhold evidence from Congress and the Courts. US v. Nixon ruled it was not absolute. Must be national security matter
White House Office staff
closest advisers to the President. Appointed by the President. Do NOT need Senate confirmation
Advisers to the President- 15 department areas. Appointed by pres and confirmed by the Senate. Only have power President really allows them to have. Typically experts in their area
If Congress adjourns and the President does not act on a bill submitted to him then it dies just as if he vetoed it
A vote in Congress to override a Presidential decision. Declared unconstitutional by S. Ct. for violation of separation of powers. War Powers Act could be viewed as one
chief of staff
the person who oversees the operations of all White House staff and controls access to the president
a presidential arrangement with another country that creates foreign policy without the need for Senate approval since it is not officially a treaty
A politician whose power has been diminished because he or she is about to leave office as a result of electoral defeat or statutory limitation.
presidential power to shorten prison sentences, correct judicial errors, and protect citizens from future prosecution.
A written declaration that a president may make when signing a bill into law. Usually, such statements point out sections of the law that the president deems unconstitutional or doesn't agree with
State of the Union
Constitutional requirement for President to deliver to Congress
Commander in Chief
term for the president as commander of the nation's armed forces
the president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public in support of the President's policy agenda
the time following an election when a president's popularity is high and congressional relations are likely to be productive
Term used to describe a president as an "emperor" who acts without consulting Congress or acts in secrecy to evade or deceive congress
The jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts. These courts do not review the factual record, only the legal issues involved.
written explanations of main arguments from each side submitted to the court to review before court hearing
is the set of rules that govern private rights, such as contracts, property, and family law.
a signed opinion in which one or more members agree with the majority view but for different reasons
concerns the system of legal rules that define what conduct is classified as a crime and how the government may prosecute individuals that commit crimes. Federal, state, and local governments all have penal codes that explain the specific crimes that they prohibit and the punishments that criminals may face.
A signed opinion in which one or more justices disagree with the majority view.
the philosophy that the supreme court should play an active role in shaping national policies by addressing social and political issues
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.
The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution or, in a state court, the state constitution.
A method of interpreting the Constitution that emphasizes the meaning of its words at the time they were written. goes along with judicial restraint
rule of 4
is a Supreme Court of the United States practice that permits four of the nine justices to grant a writ of certiorari.
presidential appointee and 3rd ranking officer of Justice Dept. In charge of deciding if cases involving the US will appeal decisions
A Latin phrase meaning "let the decision stand." Most cases reaching appellate courts are settled on this principle.
writ of certiorari
An order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up a case for review.
Presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work.
How similar cases have been decided in the past and serve as a guideline for future decisions
strict constructionist approach
the view that judges should decide cases strictly on the basis of the language of the laws and the Constitution
The belief that judges should have freedom in interpreting the Constitution
The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. These are the courts that determine the facts about a case.
Office of Management and Budget- advise the President on the budget and helps review proposed regulations of gov't agencies
Hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on merit principle, IMPLEMENTS policy
patronage/ spoils system
used by party machines. A job, promotion, or contract is awarded for political reasons
independent regulatory commission
government agency with responsibility for making and enforcing rules to protect the public interest. Heads are appointed by Pres and confirmed by Senate but usually for a set amount of time longer than a presidential term. ex: FCC, FEC, SEC, NLRB
government organization set up like a business corporation to provide a service that could be delivered by private sector and charges for its services. Ex: Post Office, Amtrak
independent executive agency
government agencies not accounted for by cabinet departments, regulatory commissions. or corporations. Heads appointed by Pres and confirmed by Senate. Ex: NASA, National Archives, EPA
stage of policymaking between establishment of policy and evaluation of policy. Translates the goals and objectives of policy into an operating, ongoing program. Main role of the bureaucracy.
greatest power of the bureaucracy. Congress often gives vague or broad legislation to an agency and the agency will set the specifics- rules and regulations- of the program
use of government authority to control or change some practice in the private sector. set by government agencies in the bureaucracy. Can be revised by Congress or declared unconstitutional by S Ct.
lifting of government restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities. Supported by Republicans to reduce size of government
Cabinet; federal government departments are responsible for carrying out laws, administering programs, and making regulations in their particular area of responsibility
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
civil service system/ merit system
the practice of hiring government workers on the basis of open, competitive examinations and merit
Office of Personnel Management
The office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government, using elaborate rules in the process.
Department of State
Chief executive-branch department responsible for formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy; in charge of diplomatic relations
Department of Defense
Cabinet-level agency in charge of the armed forces and military policy. HQ = The Pentagon.
Department of Homeland Security
Cabinet department created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks to coordinate domestic security efforts
Department of Transportation
Manages the nations highways, railroads, airlines, and sea traffic
Department of Veterans Affairs
Directs services for armed forces veterans
Environmental Protection Agency
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Department of Education
Provides advice and funding for schools
Federal Election Commission
A six-member bipartisan agency created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974. The federal Election Commission administers and enforces campaign finance laws.
Securities and Exchange Commission
an independent agency of the government that regulates financial markets and investment companies
government corporation- a company that operates a railroad system with combined passenger and rail service throughout the continental United States
US Postal Service
an independent federal agency that provides mail processing and delivery service for individuals and businesses in the United States (second for the most federal employees)
Congressional Budget Office
Advises Congress on the probable consequences of its decisions, forecasts revenues, and is a counterweight to the president's Office of Management and Budget.
done by bureaucracy to ensure regulations are being followed- Activities undertaken to establish whether a process or procedure is carried out in conformance with relevant external requirements, whether set through legislation, regulations, or directions
Government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law, regardless of need.
Federal spending on programs that are controlled through the regular budget process
Federal spending required by law that continues without the need for annual approvals by Congress.
a situation in which the government spends more than it takes in
the total amount of money that a country's government has borrowed, by various means.
A emergency budget extension measure that Congress passes when a full budget law has not been completed by the beginning of the new fiscal year (October 1). Avoids government shutdown.
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