Chapter 14 APUSH
Terms in this set (25)
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
Born in Rockbridge County, Virginia on 1809, he was very interested in helping out the fellow farmer. In 1831, he revolutionized the farming industry by inventing the mechanical reaper. He later improved upon it and patented it in 1834. He then started a company that manufactured this reaper and sold it on the market. He became tremendously rich doing this and later married. He was very generous to his nearby churches and schools.
born in Massachusetts. He was a mechanical genius that graduated from Yale. After college he traveled to Georgia to be a tutor while preparing for the law. While in Georgia he was told that the South would make a lot of money if someone could invent a machine to separate the seed from cotton. In 1793, within ten days of being told this, he had constructed a rough machine fifty times more effective than the handpicking process. Invented cotton gin
He was a German immigrant who fought for political freedom in his home country, and against slavery and unfair treatment of the Native Americans in America
A painter/ engineer who got financial backing to build a powerful steam engine (Clermont). Skeptics called it ''Fulton's Folly''. But in 1807 the boat made the 150 mile run from New York City up the Hudson River to Albany in 32 hours. Within a few years he changed all of America's navigable streams into two-way arteries and forever changed the way the West and the South could transport their goods.
Samuel F.B. Morser
invented the telegraph, got money from congress to support his "talking wires", In 1844 Morse strung a wire forty miles from Washington to Baltimore and tapped out the historic message, "What hath God wrought?''
United States politician who as governor of New York started and supported the project to build the Erie Canal (1769-1828) His leadership helped complete the canal, which boosted the economy greatly by cutting time traveled from west New York to the Hudson.
Known as a noted educator, and renowned for her forthright opinions on women's education as well as her vehement support of the many benefits of the incorporation of a kindergarten into children's education. She encouraged women to enter the teaching profession b/c their "natural" role suited them to the care and nurturing of children. She combined the "cult of domesticity" with educational reform.
Began in the 1750's in Britain with a group of inventors perfecting textile machines. These British developments eventually found their way into American Industry. Factories were made to work with the South's raw textiles Industrialization started in the North because of its dense population, reliance of shipping, and its number of seaports The rapid rivers of the North also provided power for turning the cogs of machines The majority of the industrialization occurred between the 1790's and the 1860's
This is a term that applies to the principles of the corporation. This started in a big way in the early 1800's for most Americans. It basically refers to the fact that a business with public stock can fail without any one person losing all of their money. It lowers the risk of new business ventures.
Term referring to a series of nineteenth century transportation innovations-turnpikes, steamboats, canals and railroads-that linked local and regional markets, creating a national economy.
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics in America, a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
cult of domesticity
An idealized representation in which the married woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
a machine that would separate the seed from the short-staple cotton fiber that was fifty times more effective than the handpicking process. It was constructed by Eli Whitney. It was developed in 1793 in Georgia. It was used all over the South.It brought a miraculous change to the U.S. and the world. Practically overnight the production of the cotton was very profitable. Not only the South prospered, but the North as well. Many acres were cleared westward to make more room for cotton.
steamboat built in 1807 by Robert Fulton; first steamboat to be commercially successful in American waters
They were a group of Boston families who joined to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint-capital ventures. They eventually came to dominate the textile industry, the railroad, insurance, and banking business' in all of Massachusetts. With Pride they considered their textile mill in Lowell, Massachusetts a showplace factory. The labor there was mostly New England farm girls who were supervised on and off the job and worked from "dark to dark."
American boats, built during the 1840's in Boston, that were sleek and fast but inefficient in carrying a lot of cargo or passengers. British steamers were more efficient than these ships and so Britain remained the #1 naval power.
Ancient Order of Hibernians
A semisecret society founded in Ireland to fight rapacious landlords, served in America as a benevolent society, aiding the downtrodden.
A secret Irish organization of coal miners in regions of western Pennsylvania and West Virgina in the mid to late 1800's. The miners worked together to achieve better working conditions, and when demands weren't met, they protested by destroying mining equipment and other activities.
General Incorporation Law
This was a law created to greatly help in "building" capitalism. It stated that businesspeople could create a corporation if they complied with the terms of the law. It was a great boost to capitalism. It was signed in New York in 1848 to save businesspeople the need to apply for characters form the legislature.
A Mail carrying service; ran from 1860-1861; was established to carry mail speedily along the 2000 miles from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California; they could make the trek in 10 days.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
Massachusetts Supreme Court decision that strengthened the labor movement by upholding the legality of unions.
Powerful New York political machine that primarily drew support from the city's immigrants and particularly social services.
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
was an oath-bound secret society in NYC created by Charles Allen in 1849 to protest the rise of the Irish, Roman Catholic, and German immigration into the U.S. They were also known as the "Know-nothings" because they kept the society a secret.
made in 1846 by Elias Howe; made making clothing faster and cheaper