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Bio 202 Lab! Urinary System

STUDY
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Urinary System
L&R kidneys
L&R ureter
Bladder
Urethra
Kidney Functions
-Excretion (primary): filter blood plasma - separate waste from useful chemicals
-Regulate blood volume and pressure
-Regulate osmolarity of fluids
-Secrete enzyme renin
-Secrete hormone erythropoietin
-Contribute to calcium homeostasis (synthesizes calcitrol)
-synthesize glucose in extreme starvation
Hilum
Where kidney receives renal verves, blood vessels, lymphatics and ureter
Renal Parenchyma
Glandular tissue that forms urine
Two Zones
-Renal cortex
-Renal medulla
Renal Cortex
Composed of 1.25 million nephrons
Contains glomeruli, proximal and distal tubules of nephron
Renal Medulla
Consists of 6-18 pyramids
Contains medullary nephron loops and collecting ducts
Renal Columns
Extensions of the cortex project towards sinus, divide medulla into renal pyramids
Renal Pyramids
Pyramid and overlying cortex constitute a lobe
Renal Papilla
apex of pyramid
Calyx drain
Minor calyx - Major calyx - Renal pelvis
Ureter
Continuation of renal pelvis that drains urine down to the urinary bladder
What causes flow form the kidney to bladder in the Ureter
Peristalsis
Flow of Urine from Urinary Bladder (Male)
Urinary bladder - preprostatic urethra - prostatic - membraneous urethra - Spongy urethra
Flow of Urine for Urinary Bladder (Female)
Urinary bladder - urethra
Renal Circulation
Renal A. - Segmental A. - Interlobar A. - Arcuate A. - Interlobular A. - Afferent arteriole - Glomerulus - Efferent arteriole - Peritubular capillaries or vasa recta - Interlobular V. - Arcuate V - Interlobar V. - Renal V.
Urine Formation
1. Glomerular filtration
2. Tubular re-absorption and secretion
3. Water conservation
Nephrons
-Production of filtrate
-Reabsorption of water and ions
-Reabsorption of organic nutrients
-Secretion of waste products into tubular fluid
Nephron 2 parts
Renal corpuscle
Renal tubule
Renal Corpuscle
-Filters blood plasma
Renal Corpuscle 2 main parts
-glomerular capsule
-glomerulus (ball of capillaries)
Glomerular filtration
creates plasmalike filtrate of blood
-driven by high blood pressure in glomerular capillaries
-water and small solutes removed from plasma, barriers hold back blood cells and proteins
-controlled by renal autoregulation, sympathetic nervous system control, and hormones
Tubular Reabsorbtion and Secretion
Removes useful solutes from filtrate and returns to blood; removes additional wastes from blood and adds to filtrate
-GFR in excess of rate of urine output
-99% of filtrate reabsorbed, 1-2% excreted as urine
Renal Tubule
Converts filtrate to urine
Renal Tubule 3 Parts
PCT
Nephron Loop
DCT
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
Reabsorbs 65% of glomerular filtrate via osmotic and co-transport mechanism with NA+
-Released into peritubular capillaries
-Transport maximum
-Tubular secretion
PCT Reabsorbs
Na+
Cl-
100% glucose
Water
Amino acids
Proteins
Vitamins and minerals
Nephron Loop
Osmotic gradient in renal medulla, necessary for collecting duct function
Reabsorbs 25% of filtrate
Nephron Loop Reabsorbs
Water
Na+
K+
Cl-
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
-Actively secretes ions, toxins, drugs
-Regulated by hormones
-Completes process of determining chemical concentration of urine
DCT Reabsorbs
Na+
Cl-
Water
Water Conservation
Removes water from urine and returns to blood, concentrates waste

Rate of water loss controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) via aquaporins
Cortical Nephrons
85% of all nephrons
Located in the cortex
Juxtamedullary Nephrons
-Closer to renal medulla
-Nephron loops extend deep into renal pyramids
-Responsible for salinity gradient, helps conserve water
Signs of Abnormal Pee
Foul odor
Glucose
Hemoglobin
Albumin
Ketones
Bile pigments
Foul odor in Pee
certain foods, diabetes mellitus, PKU
Glucose in Pee
Diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes
Hemoglobin in Pee
Kidney damage, heavy physical activity
Ketones in Pee
fatty-acid breakdown, poor nutrition, acute or severe illness, pregnancy
Bile pigments in Pee
possible liver disease