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Lec. 17: Intro to the Digestive System, and the Mouth
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Terms in this set (73)
What contains energy and a variety of nutrients that our bodies need to live?
Food must be what before it can be absorbed by the digestive system.
broken down to its molecular componenets
Broken down food is transported by the blood to this.
Medical field focused on the structures, functions, and disorders of the digestive tract.
Physicians specializing in gastroenterology are called what?
Gasteronenterologists (GI docs)
A general surgeon who has gained further training of the lower GI tract is called what?
Colorectal surgeon or proctologist
A long tube open at both ends for the transit of food during processing.
Gastrointestinal tract (GI docs)
Name the divisions of the GI tract.
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
These structures contribute to food processing
Accessory Structures include
Teeth, Tongue, gallblader, and digestive glands (salivary glands, liver and pancreas)
Taking food into the mouth
Is the release of water, acid, buffers, and enzymes into the lumen of the tract.
Secretion is accomplished by the cells of both the ______ and _______
GI tract and accessory organs
Resulting from the alternating contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles within the walls of the GI tract
Mixing and Propulsion
Where does Peristalsis happens
in the GI tract
Consists of movements of the GI tract that aid in breaking food into smaller pieces
A series of catabolic reactions that break down large carbohydrates, lipids, and protein food molecules into smaller molecules that are usable by body cells.
The passage of digested molecules from the lumen of the GI tract, across the wall of the tract, and into the underlying blood or lymph for distribution to cells throughout the body.
An emptying of the rectum to eliminate indigestible substances from the GI tract.
The layers that of the GI tract include the inner layer of the lumen and moving outwards to include the...
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa
Mucosa is facing the ....
Mucosa consists of what
epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosa.
What is in direct contact with the contents of the GI tract?
In the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus, the epithelium consists of ....
non-keratinized stratified squamous cells
In the stomach and intestines, where the mucosa is needed for secretion and absorption, the tissue is...
simple columnar epithelium
This has blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and some connective tissue.
Mucosa-associated lymph tissue
Part of the Lymph system that monitors and products an immune response to pathogens passing with food through the GI tract.
It is estimated that there are as many _________ ____ associated with the GI tract as in all the rest of the body.
This allows for local movement of the mucosal layer that is independent of the other layers of the GI tract wall.
Muscularis mucosa can increase surface area between the _______ ________ and the mucosa, aiding in digestion and absorption.
A loose connective tissue with a large number of blood and lymph vessels.
Controls the secretions of the GI tract.
The submucosal plexus is a network of neurons that is part of the ___, which is included under the larger category of the ___
ENS (enteric nervous system); ANS (automatic nervous system)
The muscularis of the mouth, pharynx, and superior part of the esophagus contains________ ______ tissue that produces voluntary swallowing.
Is the muscularis voluntary or involunary
This type of muscle forms the external anal sphincter.
Created by coordinated muscular contraction, resulting in food bolus progressing forward through the GO tract from one section to the next.
Peristalsis contractions occur where related to the bolus?
Peristalsis is governed by these two things.
Hormonal and neuronal control
This is carried out by the alternating of contractions and relaxations of the circular layer of the muscularis.
Segmentation aids in mixing food with _________ _______ the have been secreted.
Segmentation also increases the contact with the food bolus and the ______
This is found between the inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers of the muscularis.
Myenteric plexus controls the strength and frequency of the ________ ____________ within the GI tract.
The myenteric plexus and submucosal plexus compose the ________ _______ of the ENS
A serous membrane and most superficial layer of the GI tract, is the outermost covering over all the GI organs that lie inside the peritoneal cavity.
The serosa secretes this a slippery, watery fluid that allows what?
the tract to glide easily against other organs.
The serosa is inferior to what?
Serosa is also called the _________ __________
The serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
The portion of the peritoneum that lines the wall of the abdominal cavity
A peritoneum that covers some of the organs and constitutes their serosa.
The largest serous membrane in the body
The space between the parietal and visceral portions of the peritoneum.
Extensions of the peritoneum include what?
greater omentum, lesser omentum, falciform ligament, mesentery, and mesocolon
Organs such as the kidneys, pancreas, and portions of the large intestine, lie against the posterior abdominal wall behind the peritoneum and are therefore classified as _______________ ______
An acute inflammation of the peritoneum
What epithelium is the mouth lined with?
stratified squamous epithelium
The stratified squamous epithelium in the mouth provides protection from these.
Abrasions and high temperatures
The fold of mucous membrane that attaches to the midline of the under surface of the tongue
The major portion of saliva is secreted by salivary glands that lie where?
outside the mouth
What are the three pairs of extrinsic salivary glands?
parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands
Saliva _________ and _________ food
lubricates and disolves
Saliva is mostly _____
This solute kills bacteria in the mouth.
This solute begins the digestion of starches in the mouth which continues until they reach the acidic stomach.
What is the primary control of salivation, which includes stimulation that releases enzymes into the saliva?
Saliva resulting from this is thicker, and contains more mucus and less digestive enzymes
A virus that causes inflamation and enlargement of the parotid salivary glands
This enzyme begins the breakdown of starch by breaking particular chemical bonds
When food is masticated and mixed with saliva it becomes what?
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